Understanding marginalisation sample paper

Q1. What is marginalisation?


Marginalisation can be defined as a social process by which certain sections of society are confined to a lower social standing.

Q2. What languages are spoken by Adivasis?


Adivasis have their own languages. An example is Santhali.

Santhali is quite different from and possibly as old as Sanskrit. Santhali also has a large number of speakers and a significant body of publications, including magazines and e-zines.


State the various areas or states in which Adivasis reside.


The various areas and states are

  • Jamshedpur
  • Rourkela
  • Bokaro 
  • Bhilai 
  • Chhattisgarh
  • Jharkhand
  • Madhya Pradesh
  • Orissa
  • Gujarat
  • Maharashtra
  • Rajasthan
  • Andhra Pradesh
  • West Bengal
  • Assam
  • Manipur
  • Meghalaya
  • Mizoram
  • Nagaland
  • Tripura
  • Arunachal Pradesh

Q4. Explain how Adivasis are stereotyped.


Adivasis are looked at in a particular manner.

  • During school functions or any other functional events, they are always portrayed in a very stereotypical way, i.e. colourful costumes and headgear and through their dance.
  • People have hardly any knowledge about them and think that they are exotic, primitive and backward.
  • Adivasis are blamed for their lack of advancements as they are believed to be resistant to change or new ideas.

Q5. What happens when Adivasis are displaced from their lands?


When Adivasis are displaced from their lands:

  • They lose much more than a source of income.
  • They lose their lands and access to the forest, which means that they lose their main sources of livelihood and food.
  • They lose their traditions and customs—a way of living and being.
  • They have to migrate to cities in search of work where they are employed for very low wages in local industries or at building or construction sites.
  • Hence, they get caught in a cycle of poverty and deprivation.
  • 45% of tribal groups in rural areas and 35% in urban areas live below the poverty line.
  • This leads to deprivation in other areas.
  • Many tribal children are malnourished.
  • Literacy rates among them are also very low.

Q6. State the various reasons as to why people can be marginalised?


The reasons for marginalisation are

  • Speaking a different language.
  • Following different customs.
  • Belonging to a religious group that is different from the majority.

Q7. Why is there a need to safeguard minority groups?


There is a need for safeguarding minority groups

  • To protect them against the possibility of being culturally dominated by the majority.
  • To protect them against any discrimination and disadvantage that they may face.
  • As they are small in number relative to the rest of society, they may feel insecure about their lives, assets and well-being.
  • The sense of insecurity may get accentuated if the relations between the minority and majority communities are fraught.

Hence, the Constitution provides for safeguarding the minorities as it is committed to protecting India’s cultural diversity as well as promoting equality and justice.

Q8. How forests play a crucial role in the development of all empires and settled civilisations in India?


Forests have been very crucial to the development of all empires and settled developments in India.

  • Metal ores such as iron and copper, gold and silver, coal and diamonds, invaluable timber, most medicinal herbs and animal products (e.g. wax, lac and honey) and animals themselves (elephants, the mainstay of imperial armies), all came from the forests.
  • The continuation of life depended heavily on forests that helped recharge many of India’s rivers and the availability and quality of our air and water.

Q9. In what ways have the adivasis changed in the present times?


Adivasis have a radically changed image today as compared to the past.

Earlier Times:

  • In the pre-colonial world, they were traditionally ranged hunter-gatherers and nomads.
  • They lived by shifting agriculture and cultivating in one place.

Present Times:

  • They are somewhat marginal and powerless communities.
  • Although they still exist, from the past 200 years, they have been forced through economic changes, forest policies and political force applied by the State and private industry to migrate to lives as workers in plantations, at construction sites, in industries and as domestic workers.
  • They do not control or have much direct access to forest territories.

Q10. Define the term ‘ghettoisation’.


A ghetto is an area or locality that is populated largely by members of a particular community. Ghettoisation refers to the process that leads to such a situation. This may occur due to various social, cultural and economic reasons. Fear or hostility may also compel a community to group together as they feel more secure living among their own. A ghettoised community has few options of moving out, which may lead to them becoming alienated from the rest of society.