Q1. Who framed the Constitution of India?
The Constituent Assembly framed the Constitution of India.
Q2. What is domestic violence?
Domestic violence refers to the injury or harm or threat of injury or harm caused by an adult male, usually the husband, against his wife. Injury may be caused by physically beating up the woman or by emotionally abusing her. Abuse of the woman can also include verbal, sexual and economic abuse.
Q3. What did the Constituent Assembly do to prevent violation of law?
To prevent violation of law, the Constituent Assembly agreed that independent India should not have arbitrary exercise of power. It therefore instituted several provisions in the Constitution that would establish the rule of law. The most important of the provisions was that all persons in independent India are equal before the law.
Q4. What do you understand by unpopular or controversial laws?
Laws which are passed by the Parliament by due procedure but are repressive and are opposed by a large section of society are known as unpopular laws.
Controversial laws are those which favour one section of the society against the other.
Q5. Give an example of an arbitrariness that existed during the British rule in India.
One example of an arbitrariness during the colonial rule was the Sedition Act of 1870. The act stated that any person protesting or criticising the British government could be arrested without any due trial.
Q6. Why were African-Americans treated equally in the United States of America? Give an example.
African-Americans were treated unequally in the United States of America because their ancestors were brought over from Africa as slaves. For example, when travelling by bus, African-Americans either had to sit at the back of the bus or get up from their seats whenever a white person wished to sit.
Q7. What do you mean by Rowlatt Act?
The Rowlatt Act was an act which allowed the British government the authority and the power to arrest people and keep them in prison for up to two years, without any trial if they were suspected with the charge of terrorism.
M. K. Gandhi was extremely critical of the Act and argued that not everyone should get punishment in response to isolated political crimes. The Act annoyed many Indian leaders and the public, which caused the government to implement repressive measures. Despite the large number of protests, the Rowlatt Act came into effect on 10 March 1919.
Q8. What do you understand by the Rule of Law?
The Rule of law states that all laws apply equally to all citizens of the country and no one can be above the law. The law is equal and similar for all, be it a government official, a wealthy person or even the President, none of them are above the law. Hence, the law cannot differentiate between people on the basis of their religion, caste or gender. Nevertheless, any crime or violation of law has to be established after which a specific punishment is given.
Q9. Why was a new law against domestic violence introduced?
New laws against domestic violence were introduced because women since long have been physically and emotionally harassed in Indian society. The Domestic Violence Act was passed in 2006 to protect women from physical and mental harassment.
Q10. What does the Civil Rights Act of 1964 state?
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, religion or national origin. It also stated that all schools would be open to African-American children and that they would no longer have to attend separate schools specially set up for them.