The living world Sample paper

Q1. True species  

  • 1) Interbreed
  • 2) Share the same niche
  • 3) Feed on the same food
  • 4) Are reproductively isolated

Solution

In sexually reproducing organisms, true species are reproductively isolated from one another. 

Q2. A group of interbreeding organisms is called a  

  • 1) Genus  
  • 2) Order  
  • 3) Species  
  • 4) Family  

Solution

A species is a group of potentially interbreeding organisms.  

Q3. The Father of Zoology is

  • 1) Carlous Linnaeus
  • 2) Aristotle
  • 3) Buffon
  • 4) John Ray

Solution

Aristotle is called the Father of Zoology. He made efforts to classify animals on the basis of some common characteristics.

Q4. Which was the first national park established in India?

  • 1) Kaziranga
  • 2) Kanha
  • 3) Gir
  • 4) Jim Corbett

Solution

Jim Corbett National Park was established in 1936, and it was named Hailey National Park after its founder Sir Malcolm Hailey. In 1956, in honour of Jim Corbett, who took the initiative for wildlife preservation in India, the Indian Government renamed it as Corbett National Park.

Q5. The suffix ‘-oideae’ is used for 

  • 1) Family
  • 2) Tribe
  • 3) Subfamily
  • 4) Class

Solution

‘-oideae’ is a suffix used in the subfamily, a category in biological classification ranking below a family and above a genus. Examples: Ericoideae, Faboideae 

Q6. State the three factors which form the basis of modern taxonomic studies.

Solution

Factors which form the basis of modern taxonomic studies are as follows: External and internal structure of organisms Structure of cell Development process and ecological information of organisms

Q7. Systematics refers to the study of  

  • 1) Identification and classification of plants and animals  
  • 2) Different kinds of organisms and their classification  
  • 3) Diversity of kinds of organisms and their relationships  
  • 4) Nomenclature and identification of plants and animals  

Solution

Systematics is the branch of biology which deals with the diversity of kinds of organisms and their relationships.  

Q8. Define taxonomy.

Solution

The process of classification of all living organisms based on characteristics into different taxa is called taxonomy.

Q9. All living organisms are linked to one another because  

  • 1) They have common genetic material of the same type.  
  • 2) They share common genetic material but to varying degrees.  
  • 3) All have common cellular organisation.  
  • 4) All of the above.  

Solution

All living organisms have common genetic material of the same type but to varying degrees. All organisms also have common cellular organisation.  

Q10. The Indian rhinoceros is a natural inhabitant of which one of the Indian states?

  • 1) Uttar Pradesh
  • 2) Himachal Pradesh
  • 3) Assam
  • 4) Uttarakhand

Solution

The Indian rhinoceros is a natural inhabitant of Assam. It is the state animal of Assam.

Q11. In nomenclature,

  • 1) Both genus and species are printed in italics.
  • 2) The genus is written after the species.
  • 3) The first letter is capital in both genus and species.
  • 4) Genus and species may be of the same name.

Solution

According to the universal rules of binomial nomenclature, both genus and species are written in italics.

Q12. The Linnaean system of plant classification is based on 

  • 1) Morphological and anatomical characters
  • 2) Evolutionary trends
  • 3) Floral characters
  • 4) None of the above

Solution

Between 1707 and 1778, Carolus Linnaeus published his artificial system based exclusively on floral characters. Linnaeus’s sexual system based on floral characters is the most advanced artificial classification. 

Q13. Oryza sativa is the binomial name of the rice plant. The word sativa is called the

  • 1) Specific epithet
  • 2) Specific nomenclature
  • 3) Specific name
  • 4) Species name

Solution

Oryza sativa is a cultivated species of rice. Oryza is a genus which includes some species of grasses (2 cultivated and 20 wild species). Sativa means cultivated. Because it is a cultivated type of rice, sativa indicates its specific epithet.

Q14. Mark the odd one in the series. 

  • 1) Tracheophyta
  • 2) Eucalyptus
  • 3) Plantae
  • 4) Chordata

Solution

Chordata is a phylum under Kingdom Animalia, whereas the rest belong to Kingdom Plantae.  

Q15. List of endangered species was released by

  • 1) BBC
  • 2) IUCN
  • 3) UN
  • 4) WCC

Solution

IUCN releases the list of endangered species of plants, animals and fungi.

Q16. A taxon is

  • 1) A group of related families
  • 2) A type of living organism
  • 3) A group of related species
  • 4) A taxonomic group of any ranking

Solution

A taxon is a group of similar and genetically related individuals which share some characteristics different from other groups.

Q17. Red data book deals with  

  • 1) Animals on the verge of extinction  
  • 2) Plants that are extinct  
  • 3) Plants showing photoperiodism  
  • 4) Endemic plants  

Solution

A red data book deals with animals on the verge of extinction. Red data books are produced by IUCN and list the endangered and rare species of plants, animals and fungi.  

Q18. Binomial nomenclature means  

  • 1) Two names—one scientific and the otherlocal  
  • 2) One name given by two scientists  
  • 3) Two names—one latinised and the other of a person  
  • 4) One name comprising a generic name and a specific epithet  

Solution

Binomial nomenclature is a system of providing a name with two components—generic name and specific epithet.  

Q19. The famous botanical garden of Kew is located in  

  • 1) India  
  • 2) Germany  
  • 3) France  
  • 4) England  

Solution

The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, was founded in 1759. It was declared as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003.  

Q20. Species become extinct most easily by

  • 1) Heavy rains
  • 2) Deforestation
  • 3) Sliding of hills
  • 4) Urbanisation

Solution

Forests are the habitat for many endangered and threatened species. Deforestation leads to the destruction of habitat of animals and hence may lead to extinction.

Q21. Binomial nomenclature was given by  

  • 1) R. H. Whittaker  
  • 2) Linnaeus  
  • 3) Theophrastus  
  • 4) Aristotle  

Solution

Binomial nomenclature was given by Carolus Linnaeus.  

Q22. Which of the following is an aim of a zoological park? 

  • 1) To increase interest in wildlife
  • 2) To conserve endangered species
  • 3) All of the above
  • 4) To provide recreation and education

Solution

There are three aims of a zoological park:  1. To increase interest in wildlife 2. To provide recreation and education 3. To conserve endangered species

Q23. Give the scientific names for (a) Potato (b) Lion

Solution

Scientific name for potato: Solanum tuberosum Scientific name for lion: Panthera leo

Q24. Which one of the following is a category?

  • 1) Family
  • 2) All of these
  • 3) Order
  • 4) Genus

Solution

Order, family and genus are taxonomic categories.

Q25. Taxonomic key is one of the taxonomic tools in the identification and classification of plants and animals. It is used in the preparation of

  • 1) Flora
  • 2) None of these
  • 3) Monographs
  • 4) Both 1 and 2 above

Solution

Taxonomic key is one of the taxonomic tools in the identification and classification of plants and animals. A flora contains the account of habitat and distribution of plants in a given area. A monograph contains information on any one taxon.

Q26. Define the following: Botanical garden Order

Solution

Botanical garden: It is a type of garden which has a collection of living plants along with their scientific names for reference. Order: It is a taxonomic category which is the assemblage of different families which exhibit a few similar characters.

Q27. What does the abbreviation ICBN stand for?

Solution

ICBN: International Code for Botanical Nomenclature

Q28. The taxonomic unit ‘Phylum’ in the classification of animals is equivalent to which hierarchical level in the classification of plants.  

  • 1) Order  
  • 2) Family  
  • 3) Class  
  • 4) Division  

Solution

The taxonomic unit ‘Phylum’ in the classification of animals is equivalent to ‘Division’ in the classification of plants.  

Q29. Genus represents

  • 1) A collection of plants or animals
  • 2) An individual plant or animal
  • 3) A group of closely related species of plants or animals
  • 4) None of these

Solution

Genus represents a group of closely related species of plants or animals which share a phylogenetic relationship.

Q30. Aristotle divided animals into 

  • 1) Protozoa and Metazoa
  • 2) Chordata and Nonchordata
  • 3) Enaima and Anaima
  • 4) Vertebrata and Invertebrata

Solution

Aristotle divided animals based on the presence or absence of red blood cells. Anaima are animals which do not have red blood cells and enaima are animals which have red blood cells. 

Q31. Binomial nomenclature consists of two names. These are

  • 1) Species and variety
  • 2) Family and genus
  • 3) Genus and species
  • 4) Order and family

Solution

The first word in binomial nomenclature is the genus to which the organism belongs, and it is called the generic name. The second word is the name of the species to which the organism belongs, and it is called the specific epithet.

Q32. A group of related genera with still less number of similarities as compared to the genus and species constitutes

  • 1) Family
  • 2) Order
  • 3) Division
  • 4) Class

Solution

A group of related genera with still less number of similarities as compared to the genus and species constitutes a family.

Q33. What information does a herbarium sheet provide about the specimen?

Solution

The herbarium sheet provides information about the date and place of collection of the specimen, local and botanical names, family and collector’s name.

Q34. Define the taxonomic category ‘Family’.

Solution

A family is a group of related genera with less number of similarities between organisms as compared to the genus and species.

Q35. Hot spots of biodiversity are areas  

  • 1) Where maximum diversity is found.  
  • 2) Where maximum number of fauna are found.  
  • 3) Where maximum natural resources are found.  
  • 4) Where maximum number of flora are found.  

Solution

Hot spots of biodiversity are the areas where maximum diversity is found.  

Q36. Give the biological classification for the following: (1) Mango (2) Man

Solution

(1) Mango (Mangifera indica) Kingdom: Plantae Division: Angiospermae Class: Dicotyledonae Order: Sapindales Family: Anacardiaceae Genus: Mangifera Species: indica   (2) Man (Homo sapiens) Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Primata Family: Hominidae Genus: Homo Species: sapiens

Q37. Taxonomic group of any rank is

  • 1) Order
  • 2) Taxon
  • 3) Class
  • 4) Phylum

Solution

Taxon is a general term used for grouping of organisms in systematics.

Q38. Taxonomic hierarchy refers to  

  • 1) A group of senior taxonomists who decide the nomenclature of plants and animals.  
  • 2) Classification of a species based on fossil record.  
  • 3) Stepwise arrangement of all categories for classification of plants and animals.  
  • 4) A list of botanists or zoologists who have worked on taxonomy of a species or group.  

Solution

Stepwise arrangement of all categories for classification of plants and animals is called taxonomic hierarchy.  

Q39. The biologist who has been called the ‘Darwin of the 20th century’ is

  • 1) Ernst Mayr
  • 2) Diener
  • 3) Whittaker
  • 4) Linnaeus

Solution

Ernst Mayr has been called the ‘Darwin of the 20th century’.

Q40. Red data books are produced by  

  • 1) WWF  
  • 2) IBWL  
  • 3) IUCN  
  • 4) None of these  

Solution

Red data books are produced by IUCN. A red data book is the list of endangered and rare species of plants, animals and fungi.  

Q41. Name two botanical gardens located in India.

Solution

Two botanical gardens located in India: National Botanical Research Institute at Lucknow Indian Botanical Garden at Howrah

Q42. Botanical gardens and zoological parks have  

  • 1) Collection of endemic living species only  
  • 2) Collection of endemic and exotic living species  
  • 3) Collection of only local plants and animals  
  • 4) Collection of exotic living species only  

Solution

Botanical gardens and zoological parks have a collection of endemic and exotic living species.     Botanical gardens have a collection of living plants for reference, while zoological parks have wild animals in a protected environment which enable us to learn their behaviour.  

Q43. The main cause of extinction of species from the tropics is

  • 1) Afforestation
  • 2) Pollution
  • 3) Deforestation
  • 4) Soil erosion

Solution

Forests are the habitat for many endangered and threatened species. Deforestation leads to the destruction of the habitat of animals and hence may lead to extinction.

Q44. Name the three codes of nomenclature.

Solution

1. International Code of Botanical Nomenclature 2. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature 3. International Code of Bacteriological Nomenclature

Q45. Name the seven taxonomic categories which together constitute a taxonomic hierarchy.

Solution

Kingdom, phylum (or division in plants), class, order, family, genus and species are the seven taxonomic categories which together constitute a taxonomic hierarchy.

Q46. How are insects preserved in the museum?

Solution

In a museum, insects are first collected, killed and pinned in an insect box.

Q47. Identify the odd combination of habitat and the particular animal concerned.  

  • 1) Sundarbans … … Bengal tiger  
  • 2) Dachigam National Park … … Snow Leopard  
  • 3) Rann of Kutch … … Wild Ass  
  • 4) Periyar… … Elephant  

Solution

Dachigam National Park is located in Jammu and Kashmir. It is famous for the Kashmir stag or Hangul. Snow leopards are found in Hemis National Park, Ladakh.  

Q48. Which of the following is the correct hierarchical order of taxonomical categories?

  • 1) Kingdom, phylum, class, family, order, genus, species
  • 2) Division, kingdom, family, class, order, species
  • 3) Division, class, kingdom, order, species, family
  • 4) Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species

Solution

Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species is the correct hierarchical order in the descending manner.

Q49. The branch connected with nomenclature, identification and classification is

  • 1) Morphology
  • 2) Physiology
  • 3) Ecology
  • 4) Taxonomy

Solution

Taxonomy is the branch which deals with the classification of organisms. Identification, classification and nomenclature form the basis of taxonomy.

Q50. A group of interconnected genera is called  

  • 1) Family  
  • 2) Phylum  
  • 3) Order  
  • 4) Class  

Solution

The family has a group of interrelated genera. Organisms which belong to one family show less similarities as compared to those which belong to the same genus or species.  

Q51. Binomial nomenclature was first introduced in

  • 1) Historia Plantarum
  • 2) Systema Naturae
  • 3) Genera Plantarum
  • 4) Genera Animalium

Solution

Carolus Linnaeus explained binomial nomenclature in his book Systema Naturae.

Q52. What title did Linnaeus use for his publication?

Solution

Linnaeus used Systema Naturae for his publication.

Q53. Who gave the first natural classification of plants? 

  • 1) John Ray
  • 2) Bentham and Hooker
  • 3) Engler and Prantl
  • 4) Aristotle

Solution

Bentham and Hooker gave the first natural classification of plants. 

Q54. What is genus?

Solution

The genus is a group of related species which has more characters in common in comparison to species of other genera.

Q55. Who proposed the binomial nomenclature system?

Solution

Carolus Linnaeus proposed the binomial nomenclature system.

Q56. What is herbarium? State the use of herbarium.

Solution

A herbarium is a store house of collected plant specimens which are dried, pressed and preserved on sheets. A herbarium helps as a referral system in the taxonomical studies of plants.

Q57. What is binomial nomenclature? Give one example.

Solution

Binomial nomenclature is the system of providing a scientific name with two components. Example: The scientific name of mango is Mangifera indica.

Q58. Explain how specimens are preserved in a biological museum?

Solution

Specimens are preserved in a biological museum in the following ways: Animal specimens are usually preserved in jars containing preservative solutions. Plants and animals are sometimes preserved as dry specimens. Insects are preserved in insect boxes after collecting, killing and pinning. Large animals (e.g. birds and mammals) are stuffed and preserved in containers. Animal skeletons are also preserved.

Q59. What does the abbreviation ICZN stand for?

Solution

ICZN: International Code of Zoological Nomenclature

Q60. Who is known as ‘the Darwin of the 20th century’?

Solution

Ernst Mayr is known as ‘the Darwin of the 20th century’.

Q61. What are the two components of binomial nomenclature?

Solution

The two components of binomial nomenclature are the generic name and the specific epithet.

Q62. What are the universal rules of nomenclature?

Solution

The universal rules of nomenclature are as follows: Biological names are in Latin and are written in italics. The first word in the name indicates the genus, while the second word denotes its specific epithet. When the name is handwritten, both the words are separately underlined. When printed, the name is in italics.

The first letter of the first word is always written in capital, while the first letter of the specific epithet, i.e. the second word, is a small letter. Examples: Homo sapiens, Mangifera indica