Plant kingdom Sample paper

Q1. Agar is commercially received from

  • 1) Green algae
  • 2) Blue-green algae
  • 3) Red algae
  • 4) Brown algae


Red algae Gelidium and Gracilaria are used for the commercial production of agar. Agar is used in jellies. It is also used in microbiology techniques to grow microbes.

Q2. The nutrient medium is made semi-solid by adding

  • 1) Sodium chloride
  • 2) Agar-agar
  • 3) Water
  • 4) Pectin


Agar is the substance obtained from red algae. It is obtained from Gelidium and Gracilaria.

Q3. In Pinus, if the pollen grain has 6 chromosomes, then its endosperm will have  

  • 1) 6 chromosomes
  • 2) 18 chromosomes
  • 3) 24 chromosomes
  • 4) 12 chromosomes


In gymnosperms such as Pinus, both pollen grains and endosperm are haploid and are formed before fertilisation. If the pollen grain has haploid number of chromosomes equal to 6, then its endosperm will also have 6 chromosomes. 

Q4. Ulothrix filaments produce 

  • 1) Heterogametes
  • 2) Isogametes
  • 3) Anisogametes
  • 4) Basidiospores


Ulothrix is a green alga which reproduces sexually by the union of isogametes which are motile, biflagellate and morphologically similar gametes. Approximately 8-32 isogametes are produced from a mother cell. 

Q5. Why are bryophytes called amphibians of the plant kingdom?


Bryophytes can live in soil, but they are dependent on water for sexual reproduction; therefore, they are called amphibians of the plant kingdom.

Q6. In Chlorophyceae, sexual reproduction occurs by  

  • 1) Oogamy only  
  • 2) Isogamy, anisogamy and oogamy  
  • 3) Anisogamy and oogamy  
  • 4) Isogamy and anisogamy  


In Chlorophyceae, sexual reproduction occurs by isogamy, anisogamy or oogamy.     Isogamy: The gametes are similar in size and shape. These gametes are not classified as male or female. They are noted as ‘+’ and ‘−’ strains.     Anisogamy: It is the fusion between two gametes which are either dissimilar in size or in both size and morphology. It is observed in Chlamydomonas.     Oogamy: Oogamy is a type of anisogamy. The male gamete is smaller in size than the female gamete.  

Q7. State any two important features of dicotyledons.


Important features of dicotyledons: Seeds of dicotyledons show two cotyledons. Leaves of dicotyledons show reticulate venation. Vascular bundles are arranged in concentric circles.

Q8. Gemma for vegetative reproduction occurs in which of the following plants?  

  • 1) Marchantia  
  • 2) Funaria  
  • 3) Fern  
  • 4) Riccia  


Gemma are the green buds in Funaria that develop along the axis of the leaves. They help in vegetative reproductive. When gemma detach from the parent plant, they develop into a new Funaria.  

Q9. What are coralloid roots?


Coralloid roots are specialised roots found in Cycas which are associated with nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria.

Q10. Which is the photosynthetic phase in the life cycle of ferns?  


Diploid sporophyte  

Q11. The gametophytic generation is dominant in which of the following terms?

  • 1) Gymnosperms
  • 2) Angiosperms
  • 3) Bryophytes
  • 4) Pteridophytes


In Bryophytes, the sporophyte is attached to the photosynthetic gametophyte.

Q12. Resin and turpentine are products of

  • 1) Eucalyptus
  • 2) Oak
  • 3) Pine
  • 4) Teak


Turpentine is obtained from pine resin.

Q13. Write the pigments found in members of the Phaeophyceae group of algae.


Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, carotenoids and xanthophyll (fucoxanthin).

Q14. Protonema occurs in the life cycle of 

  • 1) Chlamydomonas
  • 2) Riccia
  • 3) Funaria
  • 4) Spirogyra


Protonema is the juvenile stage of Funaria. It is a branched, green filamentous structure formed by the germination of spores under favourable conditions. 

Q15. Name the plant body which produces gametes by mitosis.



Q16. Name the diploid phase in the plant with a haplontic life cycle.  


The zygote is the diploid phase in a plant with a haplontic life cycle.  

Q17. Brown algae have a characteristic pigment of  

  • 1) Haematochrome  
  • 2) Phycocyanin  
  • 3) Phycoerythrin  
  • 4) Fucoxanthin  


Fucoxanthin is a carotenoid pigment which imparts a brown colour to algae. It is sensitive to shorter wavelengths of light. Hence, species of brown algae are found in shallow water.  

Q18. The first vascular plants are which of the following plants?

  • 1) Spermatophyta
  • 2) Thallophyta
  • 3) Bryophyta
  • 4) Pteridophyta


Pteridophytes are considered first seedless, terrestrials vascular plants containing xylem and phloem.

Q19. In ferns, meiosis occurs when 

  • 1) Antheridia and archegonia are formed
  • 2) Gametes are formed
  • 3) Spores germinate
  • 4) Spores are formed


In ferns, sexual reproduction takes place through spores which are borne in sporangia. 

Q20. A multicellular jacketed female sex organ of bryophytes is called which of the following terms?  

  • 1) Trichogyne  
  • 2) Ascogonium  
  • 3) Archegonium  
  • 4) Carpogonium  


Archegonium is flask-shaped and jacketed. Its lower part is swollen and the anterior part is apical in shape. It produces egg cells.  

Q21. What is unique about bryophytes?  

  • 1) They lack vascular tissues.  
  • 2) They do not have roots.  
  • 3) Sporophyte remains attached to gametophyte.  
  • 4) Bryophytes produce spores.  


Sporophytes remain attached to the gametophyte. Gametophytes are photosynthetic and nourish the sporophytes.  

Q22. Gymnosperms are characterised by

  • 1) Multiflagellate sperms
  • 2) Seeds inside fruits
  • 3) Winged seeds
  • 4) Naked seeds


In gymnosperms, seeds are naked and are not embedded in fruits.

Q23. The product of conjugation in Spirogyra or fertilisation of Chlamydomonas is 

  • 1) Oospore
  • 2) Zygospore
  • 3) Carpospore
  • 4) Zoospore


In Chlamydomonas, the zygospore is the resultant of isogamy, anisogamy or oogamy.     In Spirogyra, sexual reproduction occurs through conjugation which may be scalariform or lateral. The resulting zygote secretes a thick wall and is called zygospore. 

Q24. The common mode of sexual reproduction in Chlamydomonas is 

  • 1) Hologamous
  • 2) Anisogamous
  • 3) Oogamous
  • 4) Isogamous


Different species of Chlamydomonas produce different types of gametes. Sexual reproduction in Chlamydomonas may be hologamy, isogamy, anisogamy and oogamy, but isogamy is the most simplest and common type and oogamy is the most advanced type of sexual reproduction. 

Q25. Sago of Cycas is given to patients with stomach disorders because it is  

  • 1) Easily digestible with less starch  
  • 2) Cheap  
  • 3) With high nutritive value  
  • 4) Tastier  


Sago is a pure starch extract in the liquid state. In the solid state, it is in the form of granules. The sago obtained from Cycas circinalis is easily digestible. It is a major staple food for people from New Guinea.  

Q26. Ribbon-shaped chloroplasts occur in  

  • 1) Spirogyra  
  • 2) Riccia  
  • 3) Chlamydomonas  
  • 4) Ulothrix  


Spirogyra is the name of the genus which is derived from its spiral shaped chloroplasts.  

Q27. What are sporophylls?


Sporophylls are leaf-like appendages in pteridophytes which bear sporangia.

Q28. Bryophytes are distinguishable from fungi in having which of the following characteristics?  

  • 1) Sterile jacket layer around sex organs  
  • 2) Land habit  
  • 3) Gametophytic plant body  
  • 4) Flagellate gametes  


In fungi, spores are thin walled and flagellate but in bryophytes the antherozoids and archegonia are well jacketed.  

Q29. The plant body is the thallus in

  • 1) Pteridophyta
  • 2) Gymnospermae
  • 3) Algae
  • 4) Bryophyta


The thallus is an undifferentiated mass of cells. In algae, the plant body consists of numerous undifferentiated cells (tissue-level organisation is absent).

Q30. In Chlorophyceae, sexual reproduction occurs by  

  • 1) Oogamy only
  • 2) Isogamy, anisogamy and oogamy
  • 3) Anisogamy and oogamy
  • 4) Isogamy and anisogamy


Chlorophyceae are one of the classes of green algae which show three types of sexual reproduction—isogamy, anisogamy and oogamy. 

Q31. In which of the following would you place the plants with vascular tissue lacking seeds?

  • 1) Bryophytes
  • 2) Gymnosperms
  • 3) Algae
  • 4) Pteridophytes


Pteridophytes are terrestrial, vascular and seedless plants.

Q32. Explain the modes of reproduction in Ulothrix.


In Ulothrix, reproduction may occur by the following methods: 1. Vegetative reproduction by fragmentation or by formation of different types of spores. 2. Asexual reproduction by flagellated zoospores. 3. Sexual reproduction by the isogamous, anisogamous or oogamous fusion of gametes.

Q33. Name the pigment present in the members of Rhodophyceae.



Q34. The moss plant has which of the following characteristics?

  • 1) Sporophyte
  • 2) Gametophyte
  • 3) Sometime gametophyte and sometime sporophyte
  • 4) Predominantly gametophyte with sporophyte attached to it


Gametophyte is the dominant stage in the moss plant.

Q34. Write any two differences between Chlorophyceae and Rhodophyceae.  


Chlorophyceae  Rhodophyceae
1. Food is stored in the form of pyrenoids.    1. Food is stored in the form of floridean starch.    
2. Chlorophyll a and b are present.    2. Red pigment called r-phycoerythrin is present.        

Q36. In gymnosperms, the haploid structures are 

  • 1) Megaspore, pollen grain and endosperm
  • 2) Megaspore, endosperm and embryo
  • 3) Megaspore, integument and root
  • 4) Pollen grain, leaf and root


In gymnosperms, the megaspore is the first cell of the female gametophyte and undergoes repeated divisions to form a multicellular female gametophyte which serves as an endosperm. Microspores or pollen grains are the first cell of the male gametophyte and are haploid in nature. 

Q37. Name two algae used to prepare agar.


Gelidium and Gracilaria

Q38. Which one of the following is not a characteristic feature of bryophytes?  

  • 1) Dominant gametophytic generation  
  • 2) Amphibious habitat  
  • 3) Filamentous rhizoids  
  • 4) Vascular tissue  


Bryophytes do not have vascular tissues. Instead, they have simple conducting strand to transport water, minerals and other food materials.  

Q39. Mosses and ferns are found in moist and shady places because both have which of the following requirements?  

  • 1) Cannot compete with sun-loving plants  
  • 2) Depend for their nutrition on microorganisms which can survive only at low temperature  
  • 3) Do not need sunlight for photosynthesis  
  • 4) Require the presence of water for fertilisation  


Mosses lack vascular tissues. Also both mosses and ferns require water to carry out sexual reproduction.  

Q40. Write the components of the cell wall of Rhodophyceae and Phaeophyceae.


Group of algae Components of cell wall Rhodophyceae Cellulose, pectin and polysulphate esters Phaeophyceae Cellulose and algin  

Q41. Which ones are non-vascular?

  • 1) Gymnosperms
  • 2) Pteridophytes
  • 3) Angiosperms
  • 4) Bryophytes


Bryophytes are non-vascular plants. They possess conducting strands for the absorption of water and minerals.

Q42. The male gamete in angiosperms is produced by  

  • 1) Tube cell  
  • 2) Vegetative cell  
  • 3) Microspore cell  
  • 4) Generative cell  


The generative cell is a cell of the male gametophyte. Generative cells divide to give rise to male gametes in angiosperms.  

Q43. A plant in which sporophytic generation is represented by zygote is  

  • 1) Selaginella
  • 2) Dryopteris
  • 3) Chlamydomonas
  • 4) Pinus


Chlamydomonas reproduces asexually through the formation of zoospores and sexually through gametes. Gametes fuse to produce a diploid zygote representing the sporophytic generation. 

Q44. Distinguish between monocotyledons and dicotyledons.


1. Seeds have single cotyledon.1. Seeds have two cotyledons.
2. Leaves show parallel venation.2. Leaves show reticulate venation.  

Q45. In the life cycle of Funaria, spores are the beginning of which of the following terms?  

  • 1) Sporophytic generation  
  • 2) Both 1 and 2 above  
  • 3) Peristome  
  • 4) Gametophytic generation  


In the life cycle of Funaria, spores are the beginning of the gametophytic generation. Spores germinate to give rise to the gametophyte.  

Q46. Phycology deals with the study of

  • 1) Bryophytes
  • 2) Microbes
  • 3) Fungi
  • 4) Algae


Phycology is the branch of biology which deals with the study of algae. It is also known as algology.

Q47. Which plant group produces spores and embryos but lacks vascular tissues and seeds? 


Bryophytes consist of a thalloid body and are attached by hair-like structures called rhizoids. These lack vascular tissue and require water at the time of fertilisation. The haploid gametophyte (formation of spores for sexual reproduction) alternates with the diploid sporophyte (formation of spores for asexual reproduction). 

Q48. Meiosis occurs in Funaria in which of the following cells?

  • 1) Spore mother cells
  • 2) Zygotic cells
  • 3) Antheridial cells
  • 4) Archegonial cells


In funaria, antherozoids swim towards the archegonium. One of the antherozoids fuses with the archegonium to form the zygote. With the formation of zygote, the sporophytic phase begins, during which the zygote undergoes meiosis to form sporogonium.

Q49. Male cone of Pinus is made of  

  • 1) Anthers  
  • 2) Microsporophylls  
  • 3) Ligules  
  • 4) Megasporophylls  


Microsporophylls contain sporangia in which haploid microspores develop. Microsporophylls in pine are present on male strobili.  

Q50. The ‘wing’ of Pinus seed is derived from the 

  • 1) Testa
  • 2) Testa and tegmen
  • 3) All of the above
  • 4) Surface of ovuliferous scales


The wings of seeds in Pinus are thin, membranous, diploid and develop jointly from the basal upper surface of ovuliferous scales and the outer layer of the integument of the ovule. 

Q51. A common feature between bryophytes and pteridophytes is which of the options listed below?  

  • 1) Multicellular sex organs with sterile jacket  
  • 2) Gametophyte dependent on sporophyte  
  • 3) Sporophyte dependent on gametophyte  
  • 4) Absence of sporophyte  


Multicellular sex organs with sterile jacket are a common feature of bryophytes and pteridophytes.  

Q52. Bryophytes depend on water because water is required for which of the following processes?

  • 1) Swimming of sperm up to egg inside archegonium
  • 2) Filling archegonium for fertilisation
  • 3) Fertilisation of homosporous plants
  • 4) Vegetative propagation


Bryophytes require a layer of water on the soil so that the antherozoids can swim to the archegonium. Once they reach the archegonium, one of the antherozoids fuses with the egg cell to form the zygote.

Q53. Name the dominant phase in a plant with a haplontic life cycle.


The gametophyte is the dominant phase in a plant with a haplontic life cycle.

Q54. Pinus differs from mango in having 

  • 1) Wood
  • 2) Green leaves
  • 3) Ovules not enclosed in an ovary
  • 4) Tree habit


Gymnosperms are known as seeded plants without flowers because their ovules are not covered and lie naked on the surfaces of specialised leaves arranged into cones. 

Q55. Write important characteristics of gymnosperms.


Characteristics of Gymnosperms: Ovules are not covered by ovary. Seeds are naked. Gymnosperms exhibit a tap root system. Gymnosperms are heterosporous. (Write any 3)

Q56. Find the odd one out with respect to haplontic life cycle.

  • 1) Chlamydomonas
  • 2) Ectocarpus
  • 3) Spirogyra
  • 4) Ulothrix


In the haplontic life cycle, the plant body is gametophyte and independent. The sporophyte is not free-living and is dependent on the gametophyte. It is observed in majority of green algae such as Ulothrix, Spirogyra and Chlamydomonas.

Q57. In plants, haploid as well as diploid cells undergo mitosis. Hence, during the life cycle of a sexually reproducing plant, there is an alternation of generation between gametophyte and sporophyte. Name the dominant phase seen in the life cycle of gymnosperms. Name three types of life cycles shown by the plants. What is the difference between the life cycles of bryophytes and pteridophytes? What value do you learn from the life cycles of plants?


Sporophyte is the dominant phase seen in the life cycle of gymnosperms. The three types of life cycles shown by the plants are haplontic, diplontic and haplodiplontic. In bryophytes, the gametophyte represents the dominant phase. In pteridophytes, the sporophyte represents the dominant phase All individuals have different ways of implementing their values and culture. Irrespective of these, all should be respected and allowed to live with dignity.

Q58. Which of the following is called amphibians of the plant kingdom?

  • 1) Pteridophytes
  • 2) Bryophytes
  • 3) Gymnosperms
  • 4) Algae


Though bryophytes grow on damp soil, rocks, walls, on the banks of ponds, on the bark of trees, they require a layer of water on the surface of soil for the following reasons: Movement of male gametes to reach archegonia For the dehiscence of antheridia Because they lack conducting tissues, they require free water for absorption

Q59. What is anisogamous fusion?


Anisogamous fusion is the fusion between two gametes which are dissimilar in size.

Q60. Sporophyte dependent on gametophyte occurs in which of the following options?

  • 1) Pteridophytes
  • 2) Fungi
  • 3) Algae
  • 4) Bryophytes


In Bryophytes, sporophyte is attached to the gametophyte. Gametophyte is photosynthetic, and hence, sporophyte gets its nourishment from the gametophyte.

Q61. Protonema has which of the following characteristics?  

  • 1) Diploid and found in pteridophytes  
  • 2) Diploid and found in liverworts  
  • 3) Haploid and found in mosses  
  • 4) Haploid and found in pteridophytes  


Protonema is one of the stages of the gametophyte in the life cycle of moss. It develops from a spore. It is green, branched, filamentous and creeping.  

Q62. Which plant is commonly known as maiden hair fern?


Adiantum is commonly known as maiden hair fern. 

Q63. Fusion of two gametes which are dissimilar in size is termed  

  • 1) Anisogamy  
  • 2) Zoogamy  
  • 3) Isogamy  
  • 4) Oogamy  


Anisogamy is the fusion between two gametes which are either dissimilar in size or in both size and morphology. It is observed in Chlamydomonas. Oogamy is a type of anisogamy.  

Q64. Consider the following statements with respect to characteristic features of the kingdom.     (A) In Animalia, the mode of nutrition is autotrophic.     (B) In Monera, the nuclear membrane is present.     (C) In Protista, the cell type is prokaryotic.       (D) In Plantae, the cell wall is present.     Of the above statements,  

  • 1) D alone is correct.  
  • 2) A, B and C are correct.  
  • 3) C alone is correct.  
  • 4) B alone is correct.  
  • 5) A alone is correct.  


  • (A) In Animalia, the mode of nutrition is heterotrophic.
  • (B) In Monera, the nuclear membrane is absent.
  • (C) Protists are unicellular eukaryotes.
  • (D) In Plantae, the cell wall is present.  

Q65. Distinguish between haplontic and diplontic life cycles.  


Haplontic Life Cycle     Diplontic Life Cycle     Gametophytic phase is dominant.   Sporophytic phase is dominant.   Sporophyte is in the form of a diploid zygote.   Gametophyte is single celled or few celled.      

Q66. Give any two examples of plants which exhibit a haplontic life cycle.


Chlamydomonas and Spirogyra

Q67. Name the process by which haploid spores are produced by the sporophyte.



Q68. Floridean starch occurs in  

  • 1) Myxophyceae  
  • 2) Chlorophyceae  
  • 3) Phaeophyceae  
  • 4) Rhodophyceae  


In Rhodophyceae (red algae), food is stored in the form of floridean starch. Its grains are stored outside the chloroplast.  

Q69. Name any two algae which exhibit a haplodiplontic life cycle.


Ectocarpus, Polysiphonia

Q70. Describe the structure of the vegetative cell of Chlorophyceae.  


The vegetative cell has a cell wall made of cellulose.     The cell wall is covered with a gelatinous coating of algin.     The protoplast of vegetative cells contains plastids, vacuole and nucleus.  

Q71. The phylogenetic system of classification is based on

  • 1) Floral characters
  • 2) Morphological features
  • 3) Chemical constituents
  • 4) Evolutionary relationships


The phylogenetic classification system is based on evolutionary relationships, and it is an acceptable method of classification at present.

Q72. Describe the events which occur during the life cycle of an angiosperm.  


During pollination, the pollen grains germinate on the stigma.     This results in the formation of pollen tube which grows through the style and reaches the ovule.     When the pollen tube enters the sac, two male gametes are discharged.     One male gamete fuses with the egg cell and forms a zygote.     The second male gamete fuses with the diploid secondary nucleus and produces the triploid primary endosperm nucleus (PEN).

Because the fusion occurs twice, it is called double fertilisation.     The zygote develops into an embryo, while the primary endosperm nucleus develops into endosperm.     The endosperm provides nourishment to the developing embryo.     The synergids and antipodals of the egg apparatus degenerate after fertilisation.     At the end of this cycle, ovules develop into seeds which give rise to a new plant (sporophyte) while ovaries develop into fruits.  

Q73. Write the name of the species of moss which provides peat?



Q74. What are pyrenoids?  


Pyrenoids are food storage bodies found in members of Chlorophyceae.  

Q75. State the uses of algae


Uses of algae: Algae help to increase the level of dissolved oxygen in their immediate environment. Species of algae such as Porphyra, Laminaria and Sargassum are used as food. Hydrocolloids produced by algin and carrageen are used commercially. Commercial product agar is obtained from certain species of algae. Examples: Gelidium and Gracilaria Agar is used in the preparation of ice creams and jellies. It is also used to grow microbes in laboratories. Species such as Chlorella and Spirulina are rich in proteins and thus used as food supplements.

Q76. Define pollination.


Pollination is the transfer of pollen grains, after their dispersal, from the anthers to the stigma of the pistil of the same flower or different flower of the same species.

Q77. What is protonema?


Protonema is the first stage in the gametophytic phase of a moss.

Q78. State any one feature of conifers which helps to reduce water loss.


Presence of sunken stomata.

Q79. Define flower.


A flower is a special reproductive structure in angiosperms in which the pollen grains and ovules develop.

Q80. What does a pollen chamber in a gymnosperm represents?


In gymnosperms, the pollen chamber represents a cavity in the ovule in which pollen grains are stored after pollination.

Q81. Explain how Laminaria is different from Porphyra.  


Laminaria     Porphyra     It is a brown alga and belongs to the group Phaeophyceae.   It is a red alga and belongs to Rhodophyceae.   Food is stored in the form of mannitol.   Food is stored in the form of floridean starch.   Pigments present are chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids and fucoxanthin.   Pigment present is r-phycoerythrin.   Sexual reproduction may be isogamous, oogamous or anisogamous.   Sexual reproduction is oogamous.   Gametes possess flagella.   Gametes do not possess flagella.      

Q82. Define the following terms:

  • 1. Isogamous fusion
  • 2. Anisogamous fusion
  • 3. Oogamous fusion


  • 1. Isogamous fusion: Fusion between two gametes of similar size is called isogamous fusion.  
  • 2. Anisogamous fusion: Fusion between two gametes which are dissimilar in size is called anisogamous fusion.  
  • 3. Oogamous fusion: Fusion between one large, non-motile female gamete and a smaller, motile male gamete is called oogamous fusion.

Q83. Describe the plant body of brown algae.


The plant body of brown algae is attached to the substratum by a holdfast. It has a stalk called stipe. The frond is a leaf-like photosynthetic organ of the plant body.

Q84. Name an alga which shows the diplontic life cycle.