NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science (Geography) Chapter – 5 Industries


Question 1.
Answer the following questions.

(i) What is meant by the term ‘industry’?
(ii) Which are the main factors which influence the location of an industry?
(iii) Which industry is often referred to as the backbone of the modern industry and why?
(iv) Why cotton textile industry rapidly expanded in Mumbai?
(v) What are the similarities between the information, the technology industry in Bangalore and California?

(i) Industry refers to economic activity that is concerned with the production of goods, extraction of minerals, or provision of services.

(ii) The location of industries is affected by the availability of raw material, land, water, labour, power, capital, transport, and market.

(iii) Ships, trains, trucks, and automobiles are made largely of steel. From safety pins to big ships are made from steel.

  • Oil wells are drilled with steel machinery.
  • Steel pipelines transport oil.
  • Minerals are mined with steel equipment.
  • Farm machines are mostly made of steel.
  • Large buildings have steel framework.

(iv) Cotton textile industry expanded rapidly in Mumbai initially because of the presence of a lot of favorable conditions. Warm and moist climate, a port situated nearby to import machinery, easy availability of raw material, and skilled labour were factors behind this.

(v) Similarities between the information technology industry in Bangalore and Silicon Valley in California:

  • Bangalore is located on Deccan Plateau, Silicon Valley (Santa Clara Valley) next to the rocky mountains.
  • Both have a clean environment.
  • The mild climate throughout the year (pleasant climate).
  • Close to educational, scientific, and technological centers.
  • Close to major roads and airports.
  • Good access to markets.
  • Skilled workforce.
  • Low rents and low cost of living.

Question 2.
Tick the correct Answer:

(i) Silicon Valley is located in
(a) Bangalore
(b) California
(c) Ahmedabad

(ii) Which one of the following industries is known as the sunrise industry?
(a) Iron and steel industry
(b) Cotton textile
(c) Information Technology

(iii) Which one of the following is a natural fibre?
(a) nylon
(b) jute
(c) acrylic

(i) (b),
(ii) (c),
(iii) (b).

Question 3.
Distinguish between the following.

(i) Agro-based and mineral-based industry
(ii) Public sector and joint sector industry


NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 5 Industries Q3

Question 4.
Give two examples of each the following.

  1. Raw materials
  2. End products
  3. Tertiary activities
  4. Agro-based industries
  5. Cottage industries
  6. Co-operatives


  1. ores, plants.
  2. Clothes that we wear, a car.
  3. Trade, banking.
  4. Food processing, leather industry.
  5. Basketweaving, pottery.
  6. AMUL, Sudha Dairy.

Exercise Questions

Question 1.
Choose the correct option.

(i) What class of economic activities does manufacturing come under?
(a) Primary
(b) Secondary
(c) Tertiary
(d) Primary as well as secondary

(ii) Which industry is the base of all other industries?
(a) Cotton textile industry
(b) Leather industry
(c) Iron and steel industry
(d) IT industry

(iii) What class of industries does Mamti Udyog come under?
(a) Joint sector
(b) Private sector
(c) Public sector
(d) Cooperative sector

(iv) Which of these factors affect the location of industries?
(a) Power
(b) Availability of raw material
(c) Transport
(d) All of these

(v) What process does the iron ore undergo in a blast furnace?
(a) Smelting
(b) Refining
(c) Extraction
(d) None of these

(vi) What is the output of iron and steel industry?
(a) Steel
(b) Pig iron
(c) Iron ore
(d) All of these

(vii) Which of these states has some major steel-producing centers?
(a) Punjab
(b) Jharkhand
(c) Tamil Nadu
(d) Maharashtra

(viii) What is the name of the place where TISCO began?
(a) Kharkai
(b) Calcutta
(c) Sakchi
(d) Rourkela

(ix) From where does the iron ore come to Pittsburgh?
(a) Silicon Valley
(b) Florida
(c) Minnesota
(d) Washington

(i) (b), (ii) (c), (iii) (a), (iv) (d), (v)(a), (vi) (a), (vii) (b), (viii) (c), (ix) (c).

Question 2.
Fill in the blank spaces given to complete each sentence.

  1. The river that provides sufficient water to Osaka’s textile industry is ………………..
  2. On basis of raw materials used, industries are classified as and ………………
  3. Basket-weaving, handicraft, and pottery are examples of …………… industries.
  4. Factors affecting the location of industries are …………, ……………, …………, ……….. etc. (give any four)
  5. Regions like the Mumbai-Pune cluster and Chhotanagpur industrial belt are important ……….. regions of India.
  6. The process of smelting is done in a ………….
  7. The four states where most steel-producing centres are located are and ………….
  8. The first cotton textile mill was established in Ahmedabad in ………..
  9. Silicon Valley is located near the …………….. Mountains.


  1. Yodo
  2. agro-based, mineral-based, marine-based, forest-based
  3. small-scale
  4. power, raw material, labour, capital, market, transport, communication, etc.
  5. industrial
  6. blast furnace
  7. West Bengal, Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh
  8. 1859
  9. Rocky

Question 3.
State whether each of the following statements is true (T) or false (F).

  1. The leather industry is a forest-based industry.
  2. Small capital and infrastructure characterize small-scale industries.
  3. Milk dairies like Sudha Dairy are joint sector industries.
  4. Raw materials are inputs into an industry’s manufacturing process.
  5. Major industrial regions tend to be located in the temperate areas, near seaports and coal fields.
  6. The iron and steel industry is a sunrise industry.
  7. While smelting, heating is done beyond the melting point.
  8. Alloying with other elements changes the properties of steel.
  9. The nearest station to the Sakchi steel plant was Kalimati.


  1. True
  2. True
  3. False
  4. True
  5. True
  6. False
  7. True
  8. True
  9. True

Question 4.
Match the items given in Column I correctly with those given in Column II.

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 5 Industries Exercise Questions Q4

(i) (b), (ii) (e), (iii) (a), (iv) (c), (v) (d).

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Define industry.

The industry refers to economic activity that is concerned with the production of goods, extraction of minerals, or the provision of services.

Question 2.
Name three common methods of classifying industries.

Industries are classified according to the raw material used, size, and ownership.

Question 3.
Expand the abbreviation AMUL. Where is its headquarters?

Anand Milk Union Limited. Its headquarters are in Anand, Gujarat.

Question 4.
Name four common processes involved in the textile industry.

Ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing are processes involved in the textile industry.

Question 5.
Name an industrial region in northern India.

The Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut region is an industrial region in northern India.

Question 6.
Name some elements alloyed with steel.

Aluminium, nickel, and copper are elements that are alloyed with steel.

Question 7.
What products do industrial plants in Jamshedpur produce?

Industrial plants produce chemicals, locomotive parts, agricultural equipment, machinery, tinplate, etc.

Question 8.
What is the link between the mines and the industry in Pittsburgh?

The Great Lakes of North America lying between the mines and industrial plants in Pittsburgh.

Question 9.
Name two natural fibres and two human-made fibres.

Two natural fibres: wool, silk. Two human-made fibres: nylon, polyester.

Question 10.
Give a reason for the fact that the cotton textile industry in India could not compete with that in the West initially.

The production of handwoven cotton textiles in India was expensive and time-consuming, so it could not compete with the Western standards.

Question 11.
What industries have started replacing the textile industry in Osaka?

Iron and steel, machinery, shipbuilding, automobiles, electrical equipment, and cement industry have begun to replace the textile industry in Osaka.

Question 12.
Why is Bangalore called “Silicon Plateau”?

Bangalore is called Silicon Plateau because of the IT industry there, and the word “plateau” refers to the Deccan Plateau where it is located.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe briefly the classification of industries on basis of raw material used.

On the basis of raw material used, industries are classified into agro, mineral, marine, and forest-based. The raw material of agro-based industries consists of plant and animal-based products. Some examples are food processing, cotton textile industry, and leather industry. The raw material used in mineral-based industries consists of mineral ores.

An example: iron and steel industry. Marine-based industries use products obtained from the sea and oceans as raw materials. Seafood industry is one such industry. A forest-based industry uses forest produce as raw material. Examples are the paper industry and furniture.

Question 2.
Describe briefly the classification of industries on basis of ownership.

On the basis of ownership, industries are classified into the private sector, state-owned (public sector), joint sector, and cooperative sector. Private-sector industries are owned by individuals or a group of individuals. Public sector industries are owned by the government.

Joint sector industries are owned and operated by the state and individuals. Maruti Udyog is an example of such an industry. Cooperative sector industries are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers, or both. AMUL is one such industry.

Question 3.
Describe the inputs, processes, and outputs in an industrial system with an example.

An industrial system consists of inputs, processes, and outputs. Raw materials, labour, costs, transport, power and infrastructure are inputs. In a cotton textile industry, for example, inputs are cotton, human labour, transport cost, etc.

Processes are activities done to convert raw material into finished products. In a cotton textile industry, ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, etc process. The finished product and all profits earned are the outputs. In the cotton textile industry, the outputs are clothes we wear.

Question 4.
Give examples of industrial regions in India and the world.

The major industrial areas of the world are eastern North America, western and central Europe, eastern Europe, and eastern Asia. In India, major industrial regions are the Mumbai-Pune cluster, Bangalore-Tamil Nadu region, Hugli region, Ahmedabad-Baroda region, Chota Nagpur industrial belt, Vishakhapatnam-Guntur Belt, Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut region, and the Kollam-Thiruvananthapuram industrial cluster.

Question 5.
Write the properties and significance of steel.

Steel has these properties: it is tough, it can easily be shaped (malleability), cut or made into wire (ductility). Adding certain other elements makes it harder, tougher, and rust-retention capability.

Steel is the backbone of the modern industry. We use a lot of steel objects in daily life. Ships, trains, and most other vehicles, tiny needles and safety pins, machinery and equipment, buildings, etc utilise steel as a main or sole constituent.

Question 6.
What factors supported Sakchi being chosen to set up the steel plant by TISCO?

Sakchi was chosen for various reasons. It was close to the Kalimati Railway Station. It was also close to iron ore, coal, and manganese deposits. Kolkata, a source of a large market, was not far away.

Jharia coalfields, and limestone, dolomite, limestone and manganese from Orissa and Chhattisgarh were easily accessible. The nearby rivers (Kharkai and Subarnarekha) provided sufficient water supply.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the cotton textile industry with special reference to its history and spread in India.

Cotton is a natural fibre crop. The cotton textile industry is the industry which involves in making clothes out of the fibre. It is one of the oldest industries of the world. India has a glorious history of producing excellent quality cotton textiles. The Muslins of Dhaka, Chintzes of Masulipatnam,

Calicos of Calicut and gold-wrought cotton of Burhanpur, Vadodara and Surat had world-famous quality and design. The traditional Indian cotton textile industry, however, could not compete with the Western textile mills, due to the high cost of the handwoven textile. The process involved, moreover, was time-consuming.

The first successful mechanised textile mill in India was established in Mumbai in 1854. The factors that led to the success were the warm and moist climate, the presence of a nearby port for importing machinery, the availability of raw material and skilled labour. Humidity was the main reason why the industry was initially limited to Maharashtra and Gujarat.

Today the industry has spread to various other parts of the country, due to the artificial production of humidity. The important cotton textile centres are in Coimbatore, Kanpur, Chennai, Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Kolkata, Ludhiana, Puducherry, and Panipat.

Question 2.
Write short notes on

(a) the iron and steel industry in Pittsburgh and
(b) cotton textile industry in Osaka.

Pittsburgh is an important steel city in the USA. Most raw materials such as coal are available locally. Iron ore is brought from the iron mines in Minnesota. The shipping of ore is also a convenient pathway: the Great Lakes of North America.

From the lakes to the industrial area, trains are there to carry the ore. Rivers like Ohio, the Monongahela, and the Allegheny provide adequate water supply. Finished steel is transported to the market by both land and water routes.

(b) Osaka is an important textile centre in Japan. It is called the “Manchester of Japan”. Like every important centre, geographical factors played an important role in the establishment of industry here. The plains around Osaka meant land was easily available for the growth of cotton mills.

The warm and humid climate is well suited to the spinning and weaving of cotton. The river Yodo provides adequate water supply. Easily available labour and the location of the port are also significant factors. The industry however depends completely on imports. The finished product is exported and is not very expensive.

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