NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science (Geography) Chapter – 4 Agriculture

Agriculture

Question 1.
Answer the following questions.

(i) What is agriculture?
(ii) Name the factors influencing agriculture.
(iii) What is shifting cultivation? What are its disadvantages?
(iv) What is plantation agriculture?
(v) Name the fibre crops and name the climatic conditions required for their growth.

Answer:
(i) Agriculture is the primary activity that involves the cultivation of crops, fruits, vegetables, flowers and rearing of livestock.

(ii) Factors influencing agriculture include the topography of soil and climate.

(iii) Shifting cultivation is the type of farming in which agricultural activities are shifted from one field to another when the fertility of the soil of the former is diminished
Disadvantages:

  • Deforestation
  • Soil erosion
  • Small patches for cultivation
  • Not sufficient for feeding a large population.

(iv) Plantation agriculture is a type of commercial farming where only a single crop (like tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana or cotton) is grown. A large amount of labour and capital are required. The product is processed on the farm itself or nearby factories.

(v) Two major fiber crops are jute and cotton. Jute grows well on alluvial soil and requires high temperature, heavy rainfall, and a humid climate for its growth. Cotton needs high temperatures, light rainfall, and bright sunshine for its proper growth.

Question 2.
Tick the correct Answer:

(i) Horticulture means
(a) growing of fruits and vegetables
(b) primitive farming
(c) growing of wheat

(ii) Golden fiber refers to
(a) tea
(b) cotton
(c) jute

(iii) Leading producers of coffee
(a) Brazil
(b) India
(c) Russiac

Answer:
(i) (a), (ii) (c), (iii) (a).

Question 3.
Give reasons.

(i) In India agriculture is a primary activity.
(ii) Different crops are grown in different regions.

Answer:
(i)
Agriculture is an activity of growing crops, fruits, vegetables, flowers, and rearing of livestock. It is a primary activity since it directly involves natural resources. In India, a huge number of people derive the activity from their ancestors. Due to lack of literacy in general, farmers prefer agriculture since they acquire the required skills from their ancestors, and so feel comfortable with it.

(ii)

  • Different topography
  • Different soils
  • Different climates
  • Different lifestyles of the people in different regions.

Question 4.
Distinguish between the following.

(i) Primary activities and secondary activities.
(ii) Subsistence farming and intensive farming.

Answer:

(i)
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 4 Agriculture Q4

Question 5.
Find out the difference between the lifestyle of farmers in the USA and India on the basis of pictures collected from magazines, books, newspapers and the internet.

Answer:
The lifestyle of an Indian farmer is quite different from that of a farmer in the USA. An Indian farmer does not have much land whereas the average size of a farm in the USA is about 250 hectares. An Indian farmer lives in his house but an American farmer lives in his farm. A farmer in India applies his own experience, and advice of other farmers and elders regarding farming practices.

But a farmer in the USA gets his soil tested in laboratories to assess the nutrients of the soil. An Indian farmer does not know of any technical advancements whereas a farmer in the USA has a computer which is linked to the satellite. In comparison to an Indian farmer, an American farmer is much more advanced in every aspect.

Exercise Questions

Question 1.
Choose the correct option

(i) Which of these is a tertiary activity?
(a) manufacturing wool
(b) selling grocery
(c) agriculture
(d) none of these

(ii) What is the breeding of fish known as?
(a) agriculture
(b) pisciculture
(c) sericulture
(d) viticulture

(iii) What is the main crop in intensive subsistence agriculture?
(a) rice
(b) maize
(c) wheat
(d) oilseeds

(iv) Which form of farming is also called “slash and bum” agriculture?
(a) subsistence farming
(b) shifting cultivation
(c) plantation
(d) mixed farming

(v) Which of these is not a plantation product?
(a) rubber
(b) coffee
(c) rice
(d) tea

(vi) In what season is wheat grown in India?
(a) summer
(b) winter
(c) monsoon
(d) autumn

(vii) Name the staple diet of tropical and sub-tropical regions.
(a) wheat
(b) rice
(c)jute
(d) coffee

Answer:
(i) (b), (ii) (b), (iii) (a), (iv) (b),
(v) (c), (vi) (b), (vii) (b).

Question 2.
Fill in the blank spaces given to complete each sentence.

  1. In the world, ………. percent of the population is engaged in agriculture.
  2. …………. is the commercial rearing of silkworms.
  3. ………. and …………… are two fundamental types of farming.
  4. In the thickly populated areas of monsoon regions of Asia, the major class of farming done is ……………..
  5. …………, ………….., ………….. and …………. are animals usually reared by nomadic herders.
  6. In ………., the land is used for growing food and fodder crops and rearing livestock.
  7. ………….. and ……….. are fibre crops.
  8. Tea is a major…………… crop in India.
  9. Wheat thrives best in ……………. soil.
  10. The three major millets in India are ………….. and ………..

Answer:

  1. 50
  2. Sericulture
  3. Subsistence farming and commercial farming
  4. intensive subsistence farming
  5. Yak, sheep, goat, camel
  6. mixed farming
  7. Cotton, jute
  8. plantation
  9. loamy
  10. jowar, bajra, ragi

Question 3.
State whether each of the following statements is true (T) or false (F).

  1. Favourable topography of soil and climate is vital for agriculture.
  2. Household labour is involved in subsistence farming.
  3. A transport network is significant for plantation agriculture.
  4. Major plantations are found in tundra regions.
  5. In the USA, the farmer usually resides on the farm.

Answer:

  1. True
  2. True
  3. True
  4. False
  5. True

Question 4.
Match the items given in Column I correctly with those given in Column II

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 4 Agriculture Exercise Questions Q4

Answer:
(i) (c), (ii) (a), (iii) (b), (iv) (d), (v) (j), (vi) (g), (vii) (e).

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is the basic function of the three basic types of economic activities?

Answer:
The three types of economic activities are involved in the transformation from a plant to a finished product.

Question 2.
What are the tertiary activities?

Answer:
Tertiary activities are those which provide support to primary and secondary activities.

Question 3.
In what sorts of areas are agricultural activities concentrated?

Answer:
Agricultural activities are concentrated in those areas of the world which have suitable conditions of growing crops.

Question 4.
What is arable land?

Answer:
The land on which crops are grown is called arable land.

Question 5.
How is subsistence farming classified?

Answer:
Subsistence farming is classified into intensive and primitive subsistence agriculture.

Question 6.
In what sort of areas is nomadic herding practised?

Answer:
Nomadic herding is practised in semi-arid and arid regions of Sahara, Central Asia, and some parts of India.

Question 7.
Why is mixed farming called so?

Answer:
In mixed farming, the land is used for growing crops as well as rearing livestock.

Question 8.
What is the main feature of plantation agriculture?

Answer:
In plantation agriculture, only a single crop is grown.

Question 9.
What weather conditions are required in the growing and harvesting seasons of wheat?

Answer:
In the growing season, wheat requires moderate temperature and rainfall and in the harvesting season, it needs bright sunshine.

Question 10.
Which two countries lead in the production of jute?

Answer:
India and Bangladesh are the leading producers of jute.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write a short note on the types of economic activities. Give examples.

Answer:
The three types of economic activities are primary, secondary, and tertiary. Primary Activities. Activities which involve direct extraction and production of natural resources are called primary activities.

Examples: agriculture, fishing, mining. Secondary Activities. Activities which are concerned with the processing of natural resources are called secondary activities. Examples: manufacturing of finished products. Tertiary Activities.

Activities which fall neither in the primary category nor the second category are called tertiary activities. They form support to primary and secondary activities. Examples: selling goods, advertising, and banking.

Question 2.
Name the inputs and outputs of agriculture in general. Also mention the various operations involved.

Answer:
The inputs in agriculture are seeds, fertilisers, machinery, labour, etc. The operations involved in agriculture are ploughing, sowing, irrigation, weeding, and harvesting. As outputs of the farming activity, a farmer gets crops, wool, dairy products, and poultry products.

Question 3.
Explain shifting cultivation.

Answer:
Shifting cultivation is a class of primitive subsistence agriculture. In this, a plot of land is cleared by the farmer. This is done by felling the trees and burning them. The ashes are then mixed with soil and crops are grown. After some time, the land is abandoned and the farmer moves to a different place.

This type of farming is common in the thickly forested areas of the Amazon basin, tropical Africa, parts of south-east Asia, and north-east India. It is also called “slash and burn” agriculture, because of the process of felling and burning the trees is involved.

Question 4.
Enlist the climate conditions required for the proper cultivation of rice. Mention the main regions of its production.

Answer:
Rice is a major food crop‘in tropical and sub-tropical parts of the world. Its cultivation needs high temperatures, high humidity and rainfall. Its growth is best in alluvial clayey soils since they have water retention capacity. China and India are the leading producers in the world. In favourable climatic conditions, even two to three crops are grown in a year.

Question 5.
What do you understand by agricultural development?

Answer:
Agricultural development refers to efforts made to increase production in farms so as to meet the ever¬growing demand of the population.

The activities that come under this development are increasing the cropped area, growing more crops, improving irrigation, using fertilizers, sowing HYV (high-yielding variety) of seeds, and promoting mechanization. Mechanization ensures that little labor is done by the farmers; instead, machines are used to provide efficiency.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe subsistence farming and its types in detail.

Answer:
The two main types of farming are:
subsistence farming and commercial farming.
Subsistence farming is practised solely to meet the needs of the farmer’s family. Therefore, the practices involved are usually old- fashioned. Use of modern technology is minimum and most work is done by household labour.

In intensive, subsistence agriculture, simple tools and huge labour are used by a farmer to cultivate a small plot of land. More than one crop is grown annually in favourable conditions. Rice is the major crop.

This form of agriculture is seen in the thickly populated areas of the monsoon regions of south, south-east and east Asia. Shifting cultivation is a class of primitive subsistence agriculture. In this, a plot of land is cleared by felling the trees and burning them.

The ashes are then mixed with soil and crops are grown. After some time, the land is abandoned and the farmers move to a different place. This type of farming is common in the thickly forested areas of the Amazon basin, tropical Africa, parts of south-east Asia and north-east India. It is also called “slash and burn” agriculture.

Nomadic herding refers to the practice in which herdsmen move from place to place with their animals for fodder and water. Animals usually reared are the yak, sheep, camel and goats.

Question 2.
Describe commercial farming and its types in detail.

Answer:
Commercial farming is the practice in which crops are grown exclusively for commercial purpose, i.e. for sale in the market. A large area is cultivated and huge capital is involved unlike subsistence farming. Machines are used to a large extent.

Commercial grain farming is a class of commercial farming. Crops like wheat and maize are grown for commercial purpose. The temperate grasslands of North America, Europe and Asia are some common areas where it is seen.

Mixed farming is another type of commercial farming. The land is used for growing food and fodder crops and rearing livestock. Some areas where it is followed are Europe, eastern USA, Argentina, south-east Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.

Plantations are a type of commercial farming where only a single crop (like tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana or cotton) is grown. Large amount of labour and capital are required. The produce is processed in the farm itself or nearby factories.

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