NCERT Class 4 EVS Chapter 12- Changing Times

Changing Times

NCERT Textbook Page No. – 98

Find Out and Write

1. Talk to any one of your grandparents or any other elderly person. Find out, when she or he was eight-nine years old-

(a) Where did she or he live? Name that place.

(b) From what material was her or his house made?

(c) Did they have a toilet in their house? If no, where was it?

(d) In which part of the house was food cooked?

(e) A lot of mud was used when Chetandas’ house was made. Why?


(a) She lived in a village named Cheyyar.

(b) Her house was made of materials like woord, thatched bamboo, mud and straw.

(c) Yes. They had a toilet in their house.

(d) Food was cooked in the verandah which was separated by a wall.

(e) A lot of mud was used when Chetandas’ house was made to protect the house from heat and cold.

NCERT Textbook Page No. – 99

A Changing House

1. Chetandas tells that people from the basti used to come to clean the toilets and take away the waste. They were not allowed to enter the house.

(a) The people who used the toilets did not clean them. Discuss.

(b) Is there a toilet in your house? Who cleans it?


(a) The people who used the toilets did not clean them as they thought that it was a dirty job. Therefore, people from basti cleaned the toilets and took away the waste.

(b) Yes, there are toilets in my house. My entire family cleans them on a weekly basis.

NCERT Textbook Page No. – 101

Seeing New Things

1. What material have been used in making your house?


The materials used in making my house are cement, bricks, concrete, sand, iron rod and wood.

2. Find out the material from which your friend’s house is made? Is there any difference? Write about it.


My friend’s house is made up of materials like sand, cement, iron rods and bricks. No, there is no difference.

3. What kind of house do you think Chetandas’ grandchildren will live in?


Chetandas’ grandchildren will live in the skyscrapers made up of cement and iron.

NCERT Textbook Page No. – 102

4. Where would you like to live when you grow up? What kind of house would you like?


I would like to live in a metropolitan city in a bungalow when I grow up.

5. You had written about the things that your grandparent’s house was made of. Has some of those material been used in your house? Name them.


No, those kind of materials are not used in my house except doors and windows made of wood.

6. People are given names according to the work they do. For example, a person who works with wood is called a carpenter.

(a) In your place, what do you call a person who works with wood?


In my place, a person who works with wood is called as a Badhai.

7. Now, look at the picture and fill in the table.

NCERT Solutions for Class 4 Chapter 12 Image 1

What kind of work is being done by different people here?

What tools are they shown using in the picture? Write them in the given table.

NCERT Solutions for Class 4 Chapter 12 Image 2


NCERT Solutions for Class 4 Chapter 12 Image 3

NCERT Textbook Page No. – 103

1. Do you know people who do these type of work? Talk to them and find out about their work. Discuss it with your friends.


Yes, I know people who work as electrician, mason and plumber.

Should be done by the students.

2. With your teacher or someone from home, go to a place where a building is being constructed. Talk to the people working there and find out answers to these questions.

(a) What is being built there?


A big mall is being built there.

(b) How many people are working there?


Approximate of 500 people are working there.

(c) What kind of work are they doing?


Masons were pouring cement on lintels and roofs, engineers were supervising the work and labourers were carrying materials. Other people were operating cranes and other machines.

(d) How many men and women are there?


About 400 men and 100 women are there.

NCERT Textbook Page No. – 104

(e) Are any children working there? What are they doing?


No, any children are not working there.

(f) How much money do these people get paid daily? Ask from any three different people.


Mason – Rs. 2507/-

Carpenter – Rs. 2507/-

Helper – Rs. 2507/-

Foreman – Rs. 400/-

Crane operator – Rs. 5007/-

(g) Where do these people live?


These people live in the tents located near construction place while others come from their houses.

(h) What are the material being used for making the building?


The materials being used for making the building are cement, wood, iron rods, sand, stone chips, bricks etc.

(i) Try and guess how many trucks of bricks and bags of cement will be used for making the building.


5,000 trucks of bricks and 1, 00,000 bags of cement will be used for making the building.

3. How do the material reach the building site? (By truck, handcart, any other vehicle) List them.


The materials reach the building site by tempo, trucks etc.

4. Find out the price of

(a) One bag of cement ______

(b) One brick ______

(c) One truck of sand ______


(a) One bag of cement – Rs. 265/-

(b) One brick – Rs. 4/-

(c) One truck of sand – Rs. 5000/-

NCERT Textbook Page No. – 105

1. Ask a few other questions and write their answers.

(a) How much sand is mixed with cement?


5 bags of sand is mixed with 1 bag of cement.

(b) Who makes the map of buildings?


The map of buildings is made by architects.

(c) Why cranes are used at construction sites?


Cranes are used at construction sites to lift heavy objects.

2. Over the sixty years, different materials were used at different times in Chetandas’ house. List these in the correct order.

NCERT Solutions for Class 4 Chapter 12 Image 4


NCERT Solutions for Class 4 Chapter 12 Image 5

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