Q 1. Poultry in India is the most efficient converter of low-fibre food into highly nutritious protein food. Justify the statement.
In poultry farming, domestic fowls are raised to produce eggs and meat. The fowls are given animal feeds in the form of roughage which is rich in fibre. Thus, by feeding the poultry fibre-rich diet, they provide highly nutritious food in the form of eggs and meat.
Q 2. What is vermicompost?
Compost prepared by using earthworms to hasten the process of decomposition is called vermicompost.
Q 3. What are the factors on which irrigation depends?
Irrigation depends on:
i. Nature of crop plants.
ii. Nature of soil of the crop fields.
Q 4. How does Bos indicus differ from Bos bubalis?
Bos indicus is a domesticated cattle that can withstand high temperature whereas Bos bubalis is a buffalo which is grey in colour and is endangered
Q 5. Compare fertilizers and manures.
i. Manure is obtained by decomposition of plant residues and animal wastes and is a natural substance.
i. Fertilizer is an inorganic salt or an organic compound depending on the source from where it has been made.
ii. The amount of essential nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium is less in manures.
ii. Fertilizers are rich in essential nutrients which are required for the growth of plants.
iii. It adds great amount of organic matter to soil.
iii. It adds large amount of chemicals in soil instead of organic matter.
iv. Absorption of manures is slow in plants as they are not soluble in water. iv. Absorption is fast as fertilizers are soluble in water.
v. It removes general deficiency of soil.
v. It removes specific deficiency of nutrients in soil.
vi. It is cheap and can be made at home.
vi. It is costly and cannot be prepared at home.
Q 6. (a) Define animal husbandry. List any three basic aspects covered by animal husbandry?
(b) Mention any two basic reQuirements of shelter facilities for animals so that their health is not affected?
(c) Give two examples of exotic breeds of cows which is selected for long lactation period.
(a) Animal husbandry is the scientific management of animal livestock. The various aspects to be followed for animal husbandry are feeding, breeding, disease control and weeding. (Any three)
(b) Care has to be taken regarding sanitation in places of shelter of animals. Shelter should be well-ventilated and should protect them from rain, heat and cold. The floor should be inclined from horizontal or vertical so that it remains dry.
(c) Jersey and Brown Swiss.
Q 7. Name one micronutrient and one macronutrient which plants taken the soil.
Micronutrient: Iron and Manganese. (Any one) Macronutrient: Nitrogen and phosphorous. (Any one)
Q 8. Why would a cattle breeder choose to cross breed a Jersey cow with a Red Sindhi? State two reasons.
(i) To combine long lactation of Jersey.
(ii) Disease resistance of Red Sindhi.
Q 9. Write a short note on the products obtained from apiculture.
Apiculture provides honey, royal jelly, propolis and bee-wax and bee venom.
i. Honey: It is an edible, sweet and viscous fluid produced by honey bees. This nutritious fluid contains sugar, water, vitamins, amino acids, enzymes and pollens.
ii. Bee wax: It is a natural wax produced in the bee hive of honey bees. The wax is produced by young worker bees. This wax is used in cosmetic, medicines, cold creams, jellies, lipsticks, lubricants, etc.
iii. Propolis: This is a substance collected from plant sources by bees and used as balms etc.
iv. Bee-venom: It is used in the manufacturing of certain Ayurvedic and Homeopathic medicines.
Q 10. Name any three methods of irrigation and briefly describe them.
i. Wells: Wells are of two types – Dry wells and tube wells; water is lifted from these wells by pumps.
ii. Canals: These get water from large rivers. The main canal is divided into branch canals and further distributaries to irrigate the fields.
iii. Tanks: These are small storage reservoirs. They store run off water from the surrounding catchment areas.
Q 11. List any three ways by which the insect pests attack the plants.
Insect pests attack the plants in three ways:
(i) They cut the root, stem and leaf.
(ii) They suck the cell sap from various parts of the plant.
(iii) They bore into stem and fruits.
Q 12. List any two methods adopted in farming for the health of the cattle.
i. Regular removal of dirt from shelters.
ii. Cattle to be sheltered under well ventilated roofed sheds that protect them from rain, heat and cold.
iii. Floor of the cattle shed needs to be inclined so as to stay dry and facilitate cleaning. (Any two points)
Q 13. List two demerits of the continuous use of fertilizers.
(i) Organic matter in soil is not replenished which makes the soil infertile.
(ii) Micro-organisms in the soil are destroyed.
Q 14. List any three desirable characters of bee varieties suitable for honey production.
i. High honey collection capacity.
ii. They sting less.
iii. They stay in given bee hives for long periods and breed very well.
Q 15. (a) What are the two ways by which we can obtain fish for our food? Explain. How is culture of Pomphret and Mackerel different from that of Catla and Rohu?
(b) Give an example each for:
(i) Fresh water prawn
(ii) Marine water prawn
(a) We can obtain fish from natural resources called capture fishing and by fish farming called culture fishing. Pomphret and mackerel are marine fish cultured in sea water whereas Catla and Rohu are fresh water fish grown in inland fisheries like ponds, canals, reservoirs and rivers and are recommended for composite fish culture system.
(b) (i) Macrobrachium rosenbergii (fresh water)
(ii) Peneaus monodon (marine)
Q 16. List two desirable traits for fodder crops.
Tallness and profuse branching are the desirable traits for fodder crops
Q 17. (a)What are pesticides?
(b)Why excessive use of pesticides not advisable?
(c)Name two preventive measures against pests.
(a)Chemicals which are used to kill pests, fungi, weeds and rodents are called pesticides.
(b)Excessive use of pesticides creates problems, since they can be poisonous to many plant and animal speciesand cause environmental pollution.
(c)Use of resistant varieties and summer ploughing.
Q 18. Define mixed cropping with the help of an example. Give any one advantage of using such a method.
Growing two or more crops simultaneously on the same piece of land is called mixed cropping. e.g Wheat + gram or Wheat + mustard Advantages of mixed cropping are:
(i)No risk of crop failure
(ii)Increase in yield of crops
Q 19. What is manure? How is it prepared? State its role in changing the Quality of soil of a field having excess of:
Manure is a decomposed organic matter which supplies small Q uantities of nutrients to the soil. It is prepared by the decomposition of animal excreta and plant waste. If the soil contains excess of sand then the water holding capacity of the soil will be decreased and if the soil contains excess of clay then it can lead to water logging.
Q 20. In the Kashmir valley, Samar’s father owned an orchard. Apples were in plenty. In the flowering season he observed honey bees on the flowers. He Quickly advised his father to start working on the idea of establishing an apiary. He found out which species are used for commercial honey production.
(i) Name the species of the honey bee which is commonly used in India for commercial production of honey.
(ii) Write two advantages of bee keeping.
(iii) List two Qualities of Samar which are worth praising.
(i)Apis mellifera is the exotic breed of honey bee which is used for commercial production of honey.
(ii)Two advantages of bee keeping are:
a. It can be used as an additional income generating activity.
b. Beehives are a source of wax which can be used for medicinal applications.
(iii) Two Qualities of Samar are:
a. He is a good observer.
b. He thinks scientifically and commercially.
Q 21. What is the objective of mixed cropping?
The main objective of mixed cropping is to reduce the risk and ensure against the crop failure due to adverse weather conditions.
Q 22. Distinguish between a mullet and a prawn.
Mullet Prawn Belongs to class Pisces of Phylum Chordata. Belong to class Crustacean of phylum Arthropoda It is a vertebrate It is an invertebrate It has fins It has shell
Q 23. (a) List the different ways in which biotic and abiotic factors affect stored food grains.
(b) What preventive and controlling measures need to be taken before and after storing the grains?
(a) (i)Degradation in quality.
(ii)Loss in weight.
(iii) Poor germinability.
(b) (i) Keep storage areas clean.
(ii) Clean storage rooms after they are emptied.
(iii) Placing rat-traps and barriers in drying and storage areas.
(iv) Inspect the stored seeds once a week for signs of insect infestation.
Q 24. What is crop rotation and what are its advantages?
In crop rotation, crops are grown in a planned sequence from season to season within a year or from year to year. Advantages of crop rotation:
i. It controls weeds and pest.
ii. It cut down the reQuirements of fertilizers. This pattern of cropping improves or maintains soil fertility.
iii. Several crops can be cultivated in succession.
Q 25. What is composite fish culture? Write the conditions necessary for this techniQue. What are the limitations of composite fish culture?
Composite fish culture is a techniQue of fish culturing in which distinguishing fish are kept together to get increased production at the same cost. Conditions necessary for this techniQue:
i. Selected fish should have different feeding habits so that all available food is effectively consumed.
ii. Fast growing fish should be selected. Limitation: Many fish of composite fish culture breed only during monsoon season. It is difficult to get a good Quality of fish seed as it can be mixed with that of other species as well, even if fish seed is collected from the wild.
Q 26. What harm can be caused to crops if irrigated excessively?
i. Excessive irrigation may cause soil erosion.
ii. Excessive irrigation changes the composition of soil by solubilising some of the minerals from the soil.
iii. Over-irrigation leads to water pollution.
Q 27. Explain briefly two ways which are used to improve crop varieties.
(i) Hybridisation: It involves crop breeding of genetically dissimilar plants. The crossing may be intervarietal, interspecific or intergeneric.
(ii) Genetic engineering: It involves introduction of genes that would provide the desired characteristics. It forms genetically modified crops.
Q 28. What are the management practices reQuired to be taken in a livestock firm to ensure healthy and productive livestock population?
(i)Providing shelter facilities under well ventilated roof-sheds.
(ii)Proper cleaning with the floor slightly sloping.
(iii)Regular brushing to remove dirt and loose hair.
(iv)Food reQuirement which includes balanced ratios containing fibre, roughage and concentrates.
(v)Special food during lactation period.
(vi)Check against external parasites and skin check against internal parasites like worms and flukes.
(vii)Vaccination against viral and bacterial diseases. (Any six points)
Q 29. (i) What is meant by bee-keeping?
(ii) Name the following:
(a)The variety commonly used for commercial honey production.
(b)The variety having high honey collection capacity.
(iii)State how pasturage is related to honey production.
(i) Rearing of bees for production of honey on a large scale is called bee keeping.
(ii) (a)Apis mellifera -Italian bee.
(iii)Better pasturage provides better habitat for honey bees & ensure more honey production.
Q 30. What is ‘green manuring’? List any two commonly used green manure crops and name two macronutrients provided by green manure.
Green manuring is the practice of ploughing green plants into the soil for improving the fertility. Green manure provides organic matter and nutrients like Nitrogen and Phosphorous to the soil. Commonly used green manure crops: Guar and Sunhemp. Macronutrients provided by green manure are nitrogen and phosphorus.