Question 1:

The workers always try to show their inability when any new work is given to them. They are always unwilling to take up any kind of work. Due to sudden rise in demand a firm wants to meet excess orders. The supervisor is finding it difficult to cope up with the situation. State the element of directing that can help the supervisor in handling the problem.


Supervisor is required to provide motivation to all the employees. This will encourage them to perform better and attain the objectives.

Motivation may be defined as the process of stimulating people to work enthusiastically for the attainment of organisational goals. It involves arousing needs and desires in people to initiate and direct their behaviour in a particular manner

Question 2:

Which element in the communication process involves converting the message into words, symbols, gestures etc.?


Encoding is the process of converting the message into communication symbols such as words, pictures, gestures etc.

Question 3:

Which style of leadership does not believe in use of power unless it is absolutely essential?


Laissez-faire or Free-rein leader does not believe in the use of power unless it is absolutely essential. The followers are given a high degree of independence to formulate their own objectives and ways to achieve them.

Question 4:

What is informal communication?


Informal communication is often verbal or gestural and hence lacks the maintenance of proves. This type of communication is the result of social interaction and satisfies social needs. Such informal paths are referred to as ‘grapevine’.

Question 5:

Discuss Maslow’s Need Hierarchy theory of motivation.


Motivation may be defined as the process of stimulating people to work enthusiastically for the attainment of organisational goals. It involves arousing needs and desires in people to initiate and direct their behaviour in a particular manner.

Motivation is a psychological phenomenon that arouses the feeling of the needs and wants of individuals. It causes a behavioural pattern that is goal-oriented.

Abraham Maslow, a psychologist, propounded the ‘Malow’s Need Hierarchy Theory’, which was based on human needs.

As per Maslow, there is a hierarchy of five needs which governs human motivation:

Physiological needs: These needs are basic for human survival and include need for food, water, air, shelter, sleep, thirst, etc.

Security or Safety needs: These are the needs for physical safety as well as psychological security and include safety of person and property, security of job and need for a predictable, secure and safe environment.

Social/ Belonging needs: These are needs for belongingness, friendship, love, affection, attention and social acceptance.

Esteem or ego needs: These needs are needs for self esteem and need for other esteem. Self-esteem needs include needs for self-respect, self- confidence, competence, autonomy and knowledge.

Self-actualisation needs: This is the need ‘to be what one is capable of becoming’ and includes need for optimal development of potential abilities, knowledge and skills, need to be creative and achieve self-fulfillment.

Question 6:

Explain the qualities of a good leader? Do the qualities alone ensure leadership success?


Leadership may be defined as the art of influencing the people so that they will strive willingly towards the realization of common goals. In other words, leadership refers to the equality of the behavior of the individuals whereby they guide people and their activities in organized efforts.

The qualities of a good leader are:

  • A good leader should have knowledge and competence so that he can easily instruct his subordinates.
  • A leader should possess high level of integrity and honesty to be a role model to others regarding the ethics and value.
  • A leader should be an effective motivator. He should understand the needs of people and motivate them by satisfying their needs.

Question 7:

A reputed hostel, GyanPradan provides medical aid and free education to the children of its employees. Which incentive is being highlighted here? State its category and name any two more incentives of the same category.


Gyan Pradhan is offering a financial incentives of perquisites fringe benefits such as allowance, housing , medical aid and education to the children etc. over and above the salary.

These measures help to provide motivation to the employees.

Other Financial incentives like:

Pay and Allowances: for every employee, salary is the basic monetary incentives. It includes basic pay, dearness allowance and other allowances. Salary system consists of regular increments in the pay every year and enhancement of allowances from time to time.

Bonus: Bonus is an incentive offered over and above the wages, salary to the employees.

Question 8:

In an organization, one of the departmental managers is inflexible and once he takes a decision, he does not like to be contradicted. As a result, employees always feel they are under stress and they take the least initiative and fear to express their opinions and problems before the manager. What is the problem with the way authority is being used by the manager?


The manager does not believe in keeping the morale high by being participative.

The manager believes autocratic leadership. An autocratic leader gives orders and expects his subordinates to their duties and accomplish organisational objectives. They exercise more control by using forces within the group.

Question 9:

Explain any three principles of Directing.


Maximum individual contribution: It emphasises that directing techniques must help every individual in the organization to contribute to his maximum potential.

Harmony of objectives: Individual objectives of employees and the organizational objectives as understood are conflicting to each other. Direction helps in bringing harmony.

Unity of Command: This principle suggests that a person in the organisation should receive instructions from one superior only.

Question 10:

State the different networks of grapevine communications.


Generally Informal communication is termed as grapevine.
Informal communication grows in all directions as it is the communication between individuals and groups, which are not officially recognised.

This type of communication is the result of social interaction and satisfies social needs. Such informal paths are referred to as ‘grapevine’. Different networks of grapevine communications are:

  • Single Strand: In single strand network, each person communicates to the other in sequence.
  • Gossip: In gossip network, each person communicates with all on nonselective basis.
  • Cluster: In cluster, the individual communicates with only those people whom he trusts of these four types of networks.
  • Probability: In probability network, the individual communicates randomly with other individual.

Question 11:

Explain the process of motivation with the help of a diagram.


Motivation process is based on human needs.

Process of Motivation
Unsatisfied Need
Search Behaviour
Satisfied Need
Reduction of Tension

Question 12:

What are semantic barriers of communication?


Communication problems arising due to the use of faulty translation form part of semantic barriers. Semantic barriers are concerned with problems and obstructions in the process of encoding and decoding the message into words or impressions.

Normally, such barriers result on account of the use of wrong words, faulty translation, different interpretations, etc.

Question 13:

In an organization, all the employees take things easy and are free to approach anyone for minor queries and problems. This has resulted in everyone talking to each other and thus resulting in inefficiency in the office. It has also resulted in the loss of secrecy and confidential information being leaked out. What system do you think the manager should adopt to improve communication?


The manager should move towards formal communication. It is based upon indirectly written documents and is the result of authorities granted and duties assigned by the organization. Messages are clear and authentic and in writing, there is no cause for rumor or misunderstanding.

Question 14:

Explain different financial and non-financial incentives used to motivate employees of a company?


Financial Incentives:

Pay and allowances: It includes basic pay, dearness allowance and other allowances.

Productivity linked wage incentives: Wage incentive plans aims at linking payment of wages to increase in productivity at individual or group level.

Bonus: Bonus is an incentive offered over and above the wages/ salary to the employees.

Profit sharing: provide a share to employees in the profits of the organisation.

Stock options: The employees are given stock at lower rate than market price.

Non Financial Incentives:

Job enrichment: Is concerned with designing jobs that include a greater variety of work content that require a higher level of knowledge and skill; give workers more autonomy and responsibility.

Career advancement: Appropriate skill development programmes, and sound promotion policy will help employees to achieve promotions. Promotion works as a tonic.

Job security: Employees want certain stability about future income and work so that they do not feel worried on these aspects and work with greater zeal.

Question 15:

What are the common barriers to effective communication? Suggest measures to overcome them.


There are four major barriers to Effective communication:

  1. Semantic Barriers: These are basically language-related Barriers.
  2. Psychological or Emotional Barriers: These are the outcome of the mental condition of the parties involved in the process of communication.
  3. Organizational Barriers: Organisational structure greatly affects the capability of the employees with reference to the communication process.
  4. Personal Barriers: These are directly connected with the sender and the receiver.

These are further subdivided as:

Barriers to Effective Communication:

  1. Semantic Barriers
  2. Badly Expressed Message
  3. Symbols or words with different meanings
  4. Faulty Translation
  5. Unclarified Assumption
  6. Technical Jargon
  7. Body Language and gesture decoding

Psychological and emotional barriers:

  1. Premature Evaluation
  2. Lack of Attention
  3. Loss by transmission and poor retention
  4. Distrust

Organizational Barriers:

  1. Organizational Policies
  2. Rules and Regulations
  3. Status
  4. Complexity in organizational Structure
  5. Organizational Facilities

Personal Barriers:

Barriers Related to superiors like:

  1. Fear of Challenge of authority,
  2. Lack of confidence in subordinates

Barriers Related to subordinates:

  1. Unwillingness to communicate,
  2. Lack of proper Incentive.