Crop production and management Sample paper

Q1. (i) Discuss the working of sprinkler system of irrigation.

(ii) What is water-logging?

Solution

(i) The perpendicular pipes, having rotating nozzles on top, are joined to the main pipeline at regular intervals. When water is allowed to flow through the main pipe under pressure with the help of a pump, it escapes from the rotating nozzles. It gets sprinkled on the crop as if it is raining.

(ii) When too much water is given to the soil, it becomes wet. Water accumulates around the plant. This is called water-logging.

Q2. How the lowering of temperature helps in increasing the shelf-life of food?

Solution

Lowering of temperature slows down the growth of bacteria, yeast and moulds, and inhibits the action of enzymes present in the food material.

Q3. Karan Fries are crossbred cows.

  • 1) True
  • 2) False

Solution

True

Q4. What is the branch of animal husbandry which deals with the rearing of bees for honey known as?

Solution

Apiculture

Q5. Why is it important to loosen the soil before sowing the seeds?

Solution

Loosening the soil allows the roots of crops to penetrate deep into the soil and allows the roots to breathe easily.

Q6. Cattle were the first domesticated animals.

  • 1) False
  • 2) True

Solution

Dogs were the first domesticated animals.

Q7. What is the advantage of turning and loosening of soil before sowing?

  • 1) The colour of the soil particles can be maintained by this process.
  • 2) The nutrients present in the soil can get evaporated by this process.
  • 3) The nutrients of the top layers can get a chance to go below to facilitate the growth of burrowing animals.
  • 4) This brings the nutrient-rich soil to the top so that plants can use the nutrients present in the lower layer.

Solution

Turning and loosening of soil brings the lower layers of soil which are nutrient-rich upwards so that plants can use these nutrients.

Q8. Discuss two advantages of drip irrigation system.

Solution

a. It is the best technique for watering fruit plants, gardens and trees in regions of water scarcity. b. Since water is supplied drop by drop at the position of the roots, there is no water wastage.

Q9. What is combine? What is its use?

Solution

A combine is a combined harvester and thresher. It is used for threshing.

Q10. In which type of field would a sprinkler irrigation system be more beneficial?

Solution

A sprinkler irrigation system will be more beneficial in a field with uneven land mass as the water will be distributed evenly in such type of field.

Q11. (i) Which oil is obtained from fish? What is it rich in?(ii) Why is it that people in India have access to large amounts of fish?

Solution

(i) Cod-liver oil is obtained from fish. It is rich in vitamin D.

(ii) India has a lengthy coastline and numerous inland water spreads. Hence, fishing can be carried out in all these areas. This leads to availability of large amounts of fish for people in India.

Q12. Poultry animals cannot be vaccinated.

  • 1) False
  • 2) True

Solution

Poultry animals can be vaccinated against various diseases.

Q13. In a shelter for cattle, the floor should be flat.

  • 1) True
  • 2) False

Solution

In a shelter for cattle, the floor should be sloping so that cleaning and keeping the place dry is easy.

Q14. Poultry animals cannot be vaccinated.

  • 1) True
  • 2) False

Solution

Poultry animals can be vaccinated against various diseases.

Q15. (i) Why do damaged seeds float on water?

(ii) Mention three advantages of sowing seeds using seed drill?

Solution

(i) Damaged seeds become hollow and are thus lighter. Hence they float on water.

(ii)

  • a. A seed drill sows the seeds uniformly at proper distances and depths.
  • b. It ensures that seeds get covered by the soil after sowing, thereby preventing damage caused by birds.
  • c. Sowing by using a seed drill saves time and labour.

Q16. Cattle were the first domesticated animals.

  • 1) False
  • 2) True

Solution

Dogs were the first domesticated animals.

Q17. Camel is a meat-yielding animal.

  • 1) False
  • 2) True

Solution

Cattle are draught animals.

Q18. (i) Briefly describe the drip irrigation system.

(ii) What are the advantages of drip irrigation system.

Solution

  • (i) In the drip irrigation system, there is a network of narrow pipes (or tubes) with small holes, in the fields. When water flows through the narrow pipes, it falls drop by drop at the position of roots of the plants. This water is absorbed by the soil in the root zone of the plants and utilized by the plants. There is no run-off (or wastage) of irrigation water. Drip system is the best technique for watering (or irrigating) fruit plants, trees and gardens.
  • (ii) Drip irrigation system has the following advantages: a. Drip system provides water to plants drop by drop. So, water is not wasted at all. b. Drip system minimises the use of water in agriculture. So, drip system of irrigation is very useful in those regions where the availability of water is poor.

Q19. Name two poultry animals other than hen and chicken.

Solution

Duck and turkey

Q20. Fish liver oil is rich in which vitamins?

Solution

Vitamins A and D

Q21. (i) Give three advantages of loosening the soil before sowing the seeds.

(ii) Mahesh uses a cultivator for ploughing whereas Satish uses a hoe for ploughing. What advantage does Mahesh have over Satish?

Solution

(i)

  • a. Loosening the soil allows the roots to penetrate deep into the soil.
  • b. The loose soil allows the deeply penetrated roots to breathe easily.
  • c. The loosened soil helps in the growth of earthworms and microbes present in the soil.

(ii) Since Mahesh uses the cultivator, he is able to save both labour and time as compared to Satish.

Q22. At which stages do wheat fields require irrigation?

Solution

Wheat requires irrigation at three stages: Before the field is ploughed At the time of flowering At the time of grain development

Q23. When would one expect to find large crumbs of soil in the field?

Solution

The soil breaks up into large chunks of mud called crumbs after ploughing if the soil is very dry.

Q24. Why does a sprinkler irrigation system have a rotating nozzle at the top end?

Solution

The rotating nozzle at the top end of the sprinkler irrigation system ensures that water from the sprinkler is applied to the field in all the directions and a large area of the field is covered by a single nozzle.

Q25. (i) What is winnowing?

(ii) How is winnowing done?

(iii) What is the function of combine?

Solution

  • (i) The process of separating grain from chaff and hay with the help of wind is called winnowing.
  • (ii) When the grain mixed with chaff and hay is made to fall from a height in blowing wind, the grain, being heavy, falls straight to the ground, whereas the chaff and hay, being much lighter, are carried some distance away by the wind. In this way, the grains form a separate heap and can be collected and packed in gunny bags.
  • (iii) A combine is a huge machine which cuts the standing cereal crop (like wheat) in the fields, threshes it and separates the chaff from grain in one operation.

Q26. In a shelter for cattle, the floor should be flat.

  • 1) True
  • 2) False

Solution

In a shelter for cattle, the floor should be sloping so that cleaning and keeping the place dry is easy.

Q27. Which part of the neem plant is used to store grains? Why?

Solution

Leaves of the neem plant are used to store grains. This is because neem leaves contain certain chemicals which are insect repellent and hence keeps insects and pests away.

Q28. Why is less irrigation needed in crop fields supplied with manures than in crop fields supplied with fertilizers?

Solution

Manure enhances the water holding capacity of the soil, but this property is not shown by fertilizers. Hence less irrigation is needed in crop fields supplied with manures than in crop fields supplied with fertilizers.

Q29. How was threshing done traditionally?

Solution

Traditionally, for threshing, the harvested crops would be laid down flat on the floor and farm animals such as cattle would be made to walk over the crops till the chaff of the crops breaks and the grains come out.

Q30. State a disadvantage of using a combine for harvesting and threshing.

Solution

The use of a combine significantly reduces the amount of hay obtained after harvesting the crop, and hence, to feed farm animals, an additional investment for hay is required.

Q31. What is the branch of animal husbandry which deals with the rearing and breeding of fish known as?

Solution

Pisciculture 

Q32. What is the importance of threshing?

Solution

Threshing is carried out to separate the grain from the chaff in the harvested crop.

Q33. Camel is a meat-yielding animal.

  • 1) False
  • 2) True

Solution

Cattle are draught animals.

Q34. Mention three advantages of sowing seeds using seed drill?

Solution

a. A seed drill sows the seeds uniformly at proper distances and depths. b. It ensures that seeds get covered by the soil after sowing, thereby preventing damage caused by birds. c. Sowing by using a seed drill saves time and labour.

Q35. (i) Why honey is used in Ayurvedic medicines?

(ii) What is apiculture? Name the product produced by this process.

Solution

  • (i) Honey is used in Ayurvedic medicines as it is rich in sugars, minerals and enzymes.
  • (ii) The rearing of honey-bees on large scale is called apiculture. Honey is produced by rearing honey-bees.

Q36. Fertilisers are applied to plants in soil. Then how do they cause water pollution?

Solution

Fertilisers are soluble in water and easily get washed off through irrigation and rainfall. They enter the water bodies and pollute them, thus disturbing the ecosystem.

Q37. List two advantages of drip irrigation.

Solution

It helps conserve water It provides water directly to the roots and thus ensures maximum absorption of water by the roots 

Q38. Describe the nutrient composition of animal foods in general.

Solution

Generally, food stuff obtained from animal sources is rich in proteins and fats. It also contains certain minerals and vitamins. Animal foods provide certain proteins which are absent in plant foods. Animal foods are low in carbohydrate content.

Q39. In which case do you think fish will form a major part of the diet of people. Why?

(a) People living in desert areas

(b) People living in coastal areas

(c) People living in areas with rich vegetation name any two fish consumed by people.

Solution

Many people living in the coastal areas consume fish as a major part of their diet. This is because fish is easily and cheaply available in plenty in coastal areas. Pomphret, Hilsa, Salmon, Tuna, Rohu, carp are fish consumed by people. (Write any two)

Q40. Karan Fries are crossbred cows.

  • 1) True
  • 2) False

Solution

True

Q41. What is broadcasting in agriculture?

Solution

Broadcasting in agriculture implies to the sowing of seeds by hand or manually.

Q42. Name a government organisation which helps store food grains on a large scale.

Solution

The Food Corporation of India (FCI) buys grains from farmers on a large scale and stores them.

Q43. What precautions should be taken by farmers while spraying weedicides and why?

Solution

The farmers should cover their nose and mouth with a piece of cloth during spraying of weedicides. This is because spraying of weedicides may affect the health of farmers.

Q44. Why are many measures used to bring large amount of agricultural land under irrigation?

Solution

At present most agriculture in India is rain fed, so poor monsoons cause crop failure. If crops get water at the right stages during their growing season, their yields will greatly increase. Hence efforts are made to remove the dependence on rains and introduce irrigation in more agricultural fields.

Q45. Why are kharif crops more prone to pest attack than rabi crops?

Solution

Kharif crops are grown in humid and warm climate and these conditions are more favourable for infestation of insect pests and diseases.

Q46. Differentiate between kharif and rabi crops.

Solution

Kharif CropsRabi Crops
i. The crop which are sown in teh rainy season are called kharif crops.i. The crops grown in the winter season are called rabi crops.
ii. The rainy season in India is generally from Junte to September.ii. Their time period is generally from October to March.
Example – Paddy.Example – Wheat