Colonialism and the City
State whether True or False:
- In the western world; modern cities grew with industrialization. True
- Surat and Machlipatnam developed in the nineteenth century. False
- In the twentieth century, the majority of Indians lived in cities. False
- After 1857 no worship was allowed in the Jama Masjid for five years. True
- More money was spent on cleaning Old Delhi than New Delhi. False
Fill in the blanks:
- The first structure to successfully use the dome was called the Gol Gumbaz
- The two architects who designed New Delhi and Shahjahanabad were Edward Lutyens and Herbert Baker
- The British saw overcrowded spaces as unhygienic
- In 1888 an extension scheme called the Lahore gate improvement scheme was devised.
Identify three differences in the city design of New Delhi and Shahjahanabad.
Do you self ….
Who lived in the “white” areas in cities such as Madras?
The British lived in white areas of the cities such as Madras.
What is meant by de-urbanization?
De-urbanisation is a process by which more and more people began to live in villages or rural areas.
In the late 18th century, Calcutta, Bombay and Madras emerged as Presidency cities. They became the centres of British power in different regions of India. At the same time, several smaller cities declined.
Old trading centres and ports could not survive when the flow of trade shifted to new centres. Similarly, earlier centres of regional power collapsed with the defeat of local rurals by the British and new centres of administration grew. This process is described as de-urbanization.
Why did the British choose to hold a grand Durbar in Delhi although it was not the capital?
During the Revolt of 1857, the British had realised that the Mughal emperor was still important to the people and they saw him as their leader. It was therefore important to celebrate British power with pomp and show in Delhi— the city the Mughal emperors had ruled earlier. The British thought that by doing this they would acknowledge people about their power and authority.
How did the Old City of Delhi change under British rule?
The British changed the Old City of Delhi entirely. They wanted Delhi to forget its Mughal past. Hence, the area around the Fort was completely cleared of gardens, pavilions, and mosques. They either destroyed, the mosques or put them to other uses.
For example, the Zinat-al-Masjid was converted into a bakery. No worship was allowed in the Jama Masjid for five years.
One-third of the city was demolished and its canals were filled up.
In the 1870s, the western walls of Shahjahanabad were broken to establish the railway and to allow the city to expand beyond the walls. The British began living in the sprawling Civil Lines area that came up in the north, away from the Indians in the Walled City. The Delhi College was turned into a school and shut down in 1877.
How did the Partition affect life in Delhi?
1. Partition of India into India and Pakistan in. 1947 led to a massive transfer of populations on both sides of the new border.
2. Partition led to fierce rioting. Muslims left Delhi for Pakistan and Hindu and Sikh refugees came from Pakistan.
- The population of Delhi swelled, jobs changed and culture became different.
- Delhi became a city of refugees. Nearly 500,000 people were added to Delhi’s population and in 1951 this addition was little over 8,00,000.
- Most of these migrants were from Punjab.
- They stayed in camps, schools, military barracks, gardens etc.
- New colonies like Lajpat Nagar and Tilak Nagar came up at this time.
3. Skills and professions of the refugees were different from those they replaced. Lives and occupations of people changed.
4. Social fabric of Delhi changed. Urban culture based on Urdu was overshadowed by new tastes in food, arts and dresses.
Find out the history of the town you live in or of any town nearby. Check when and how it grew, and how it has changed over the years. You could look” at the history of the bazaars, the buildings, cultural institutions, and settlements.
Monu Nagar (An Imaginary Town):
1. Monu Nagar was a small village along G.T. Road.
2. People in the village lived a simple life, mostly of the agriculturist.
3. Slowly modern life style came.
- People started shops along the road.
- Some started repairs of vehicles, cycles, scooters and agriculture implements etc.
4. Agriculture as occupation declined.
5. Several schools, a college and health center developed over years.
6. Some air-conditioned restaurants were opened during last five years.
7. It has become a big town.
Make a list of at least ten occupations in the city, town or village to which you belong, and find out how long they have existed. What does this tell you about the changes within this area?
Some of these professions changed due to demographic changes. The changes were gradual. This showed that occupational changes bring a cultural and social change. Write to yourself about changes with the help of your teacher.
Objective Type Questions
1. Match the following:
2. State whether True or False:
- The British lived in white areas of the cities. True
- The British wanted Delhi to forget its Mughal past. True
- The Jama-Masjid was converted into a Bakery by the British. False
- In 1877, Queen Victoria was recognized as the Empress of India, True
- Lakpre gate improvement scheme was devised in the year 1905. False
3. Fill in the blanks:
- In the 1870s, the western walls of Shahjahanabad were broken to establish the railways.
- The Mughal aristocracy in the 17th and 18th century lived in Havelis
- A haveli (is) housed by many families
- The central dome of the Viceroy’s Palace was copied from the Buddhist Stupa
- The British exiled Bahadur Shah Zafar to Burma (now Myanmar)
Multiple Choice Questions
Choose the correct answer:
1. Which of the following was a manufacturing town?
2. Which of the following city was Not developed as a Presidency city in colonial India?
3. How many Delhi Muslims migrated in the 1947 partition of India?
(a) Over two-third of the Delhi Muslims
(b) Over one-third of the Delhi Muslims
(c) Over three-fourth of the Delhi Muslims
(d) None of the above
4. Most of the migrants in Delhi were from
5. Which was NOT the new British Port in the late eighteenth century?
6. Which region was NOT de-urbanized in the 19th century?
7. Which was NOT the place of East India Company’s ‘factories’?
8. When did the British gain control of Delhi?
9. When did Delhi become the capital of British India?