Class 8 NCERT Solutions for Social Science (History) Chapter – 5 When People Rebel 1857 and After

When People Rebel 1857 and After

Activity (Page 52)

Question 1.
Imagine you are a sepoy in the Company army, advising your nephew not to take employment in the army. What reasons would you give?

Answer:

  1. A sepoy has a life full of trouble. He has to wander here and there frequently.
  2. His social mobility is almost lost. He cannot spend much time with his family.
  3. He does the duties of a sepoy at the cost of his family duties. He has no time to take care of his old parents.
  4. His fife is always at risks. His sudden death shatters the lives of many in his family.

Activity (Page 55)

Question 1.
What were the important concerns in the minds of the people according to Sitaram and according to Vishnubhatt?

Answer:

  • According to Sitaram – People were mostly annoyed due to the seizing of Oudh. However, the news of the use of grease made using fat of cow and pig in the rifle was also an important concern in the minds of the people.
  • According to Vishnubhatt – People feared that the British were determined to wipe out the religions of the Hindus and the Muslims so as to make them Christians.

Question 2.
What role did they think the rulers were playing? What role did the sepoys seem to play?

Answer:

  • The rulers were provocating the sepoys in the name of religion to stage mutiny against the British. They were making lies and false promises to persuade the sepoy to revolt.
  • The sepoy were spreading the news of interference in the religious matter among the fellows of other cantonments. They were making plans to revolt against the British to save their religion.

Activity (Page 58)

Question 1.
Why did the Mughal emperor agree to support the rebels?

Answer:
After capturing Meerut cantonment, the sepoy marched to Delhi. The sepoy from Delhi Cantonment also revolted and killed the officials. These sepoys entered the red fort, and proclaimed Bahadur Shah as their leader. So, Bahadur Shah, however, was not willing, had to agree to support the rebels.

Question 2.
What role did they think the rulers were playing? What role did the sepoys seem to play?

Answer:

  • The rulers were provocating the sepoys in the name of religion to stage mutiny against the British. They were making lies and false promises to persuade the sepoy to revolt.
  • The sepoy were spreading the news of interference in the religious matter among the fellows of other cantonments. They were making plans to revolt against the British to save their religion.

Activity (Page 58)

Question 1.
Why did the Mughal emperor agree to support the rebels?

Answer:
After capturing Meerut cantonment, the sepoy marched to Delhi. The sepoy from Delhi Cantonment also revolted and killed the officials. These sepoys entered the red fort, and proclaimed Bahadur Shah as their leader. So, Bahadur Shah, however, was not willing, had to agree to support the rebels.

Question 2.
Write a paragraph on the assessment he may have made before accepting the offer of the sepoys.

Answer:

  1. Bahadur Shah knew that he was old enough to lead the rebels. He was not able to move here and there which was inevitable.
  2. He was aware of the might and strength of the British.
  3. At the same time he knew the value of the name of his dynasty. He was aware of the initial victory of the rebels.
  4. He might have presumed that most of. the sepoys would revolt and this way the British would become weakened itself.
  5. He also knew that the rulers who had lost their regions to the British would definitely come ahead to support.

Activity (Page 59)

Question 1.
Make a list of places where the uprising took place in May, June and July 1857.

Answer:
May-1857 – Meerut, Delhi
June – Kanpur
July – Lucknow

Let’s Imagine (Page 64)

Question 1.
Imagine you are a British officer in Awadh during the rebellion. What would you do to keep your plans of fighting the rebels a top secret.

Answer:

  1. I would do personal meetings with the higher British officials.
  2. I would convey all the message to the concerned British authorities through English men and not through the Indians. They might leak the message.
  3. I would try to discuss my plans personally and sitting face to face and not through the papers that might fall into the hands of rebels.
  4. I would keep watch on all Indians whether bearing higher or smaller ranks and posts.

Exercise Questions and Answers

Let’s recall

Question 1.
What was the demand of Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi that was refused by the British?

Answer:
She wanted the Company to recognise her adopted son as the heir to the kingdom after the death of her husband.

Question 2.
What did the British do to protect the interests of those who converted to Christianity?

Answer:
The Indians who converted to Christianity were allowed to inherit the property of their ancestors.

Question 3.
What objections did the sepoys have to the new cartridges that they were asked to use?

Answer:
The cartridges were greased with the fats of cow and pig. The use of these things were against the religious sentiments of Hindus and Muslims. So, the sepoys from these religions objected.

Question 4.
How did the last Mughal emperor live the last years of his life?

Answer:
The last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar spent the last years of his life in the jail in Rangoon (in present day Myanmar). There he died in Nov. 1862.

Let’s discuss

Question 5.
What could be the reasons for the confidence of the British rulers about their position in India before May 1857?

Answer:

  1. They supposed that the Indian soldiers are faithful to them. They are very loyal servants.
  2. They knew that many of the kings and zamindars are their supporters.
  3. Before 1857, they have won many wars and suppressed many revolts successfully. So, they were confident of their military strength.

Question 6.
What impact did Bahadur Shah Zafar’s support to the rebellion have on the people and the ruling families?

Answer:

  1. People became greatly inspired with the news that Bahadur Shah had supported the rebels. They saw a ray of hope to throw out the oppressive and exploitative British rule.
  2. Most of the ruling families had lost their territory under different British policies. They hoped that the British would be defeated and they would get back their territory.

Question 7.
How did the British succeed in securing the submission of the rebel landowners of Awadh?

Answer:

  1. The British tried and hanged many nawabs and rajas. This spread the terror.
  2. The British announced that the loyal landholders would be allowed to continue to enjoy traditional rights over their lands.
  3. Those who have rebelled were told that if they submitted to the British, and if they had not killed any white people, they would remain safe and their rights and claims to land would not be denied.

Question 8.
In what ways did the British change their policies as a result of the rebellion of 1857?

Answer:

  1. The ruling chiefs were assured of their territory.
  2. Adoption of son as heir was allowed.
  3. Proportion of Indian soldiers in the army was reduced and that of Europeans was increased.
  4. In army proportion of Gurkhas, Sikhs and Pathan was increased.
  5. Muslims were treated with suspicion and hostility.
  6. The British decided to respect the customs, religions and social practices of Indians.
  7. Policies were made to protect landlords and zamindars and their rights over lands.\

Let’s do

Question 9.
Find out stories and songs remembered by people in your area or your family about San Sattavan ki Ladaai. What memories do people cherish about the great uprising ?

Answer:
(1) There are several stories about the brave works of some people during San Sattavan ki Ladaai.
“There was a Courtesan in Kanpur. He was linked to a Hindu Military Subedar who rebelled in 1857. When during the course of the revolt, the rebel Subedar fell to the bullets of the British, the Courtesan Azizun Nisa mobilised women to form a band of troops.

She represented this band as its military Commander and participated in the war of independence with full vigour along with Begam Hazrat Mahal and Tantia Tope.”

(2) Many of our elders say that they came to know from their grandfather about the Hindu-Muslim unity during the war of independence of 1857. There was a Hindu priest, who did not allow even Hindus from lower castes to enter the temple premises. But, during the fight of 1857 several Muslim rebel soldiers found their shelter in his temple. He personally took care of these soldiers.

He told that service to the motherland was superior to every thing. Even today people cherish about this incident in our area. Below is given the immortal flag song of 1857 :
We are its flowers, Hindustan is ours Our nation is sacred, dearer than heaven World is a glow with the light of its soul How old, how new, best of all world Our very own, Hindustan is ours Flow of Ganga and Yamuna, makes our land fertile
Overhead snow-clad mountains—
Our sentry towering

Below, trumpets of Sea, beating against coasts
From mines gold and diamond overflow Our pomp and splendor, best in the world Then came firangi from far land Cast a magical spell Looted our dear land with both hands Today, the martyrs call upon whole nation— Break the shackles of slavery, pour out fire Hindu, Muslim, Sikh, all beloved brothers This is the flag of our Freedom Hail and salute it.

Question 10.
Find out more about Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi. In what ways would she have been an unusual woman for her times?

Answer:
(1)

1) Rani Laxmibai was born sometime around 1828 in Varanasi. His father Moropant Tambey was a Marathi Brahmin. Her mother Bhagirathibai was a cultured religious woman.

2) She was raised in the Court of Baji Rao II, the last of the Maratha Peshwas. At the age of 14, she was married to Raja Gangadhar Rao of Jhansi. Here she was given a new name, Laxmibai.

3) She gave birth to a son but soon he died. In 1853 Gangadhar Rao fell ill. He was persuaded to adopt a child as his heir. He adopted Damodar Rao, a little child. The next day he died.

4) Rani claimed that Damodar Rao was their legal Heir. The British rule rejected Rani’s claim and decided to annex Jhansi under the Doctrine of Lapse.

5) Rani sought the advice of a British lawyer and fought her case in London. Her petition was ultimately rejected. The British confiscated the state jewels and deducted her husband’s debt from her annual pension.

6) She was asked to leave Jhansi fort. Laxmibai was determined to defend Jhansi. She proclaimed her decision with the famous words “Mi Mahji Jhansi nahi dehnar (I will not give up my Jhansi).

7) She raised a volunteer army in which both men and women were recruited. She fought for two weeks but the Fort of Jhansi was lost to the British.

8) Rani escaped in guise of a man with few of her supporters with her son tied behind her back and a sword in her hand. She regrouped her force and moved towards Gwalior. She fought for a week but finally became victim of a bullet in the battle field in 1858.

(2)
It was not easy for a woman to be the head of State at that time. Rani faced many difficulties but she ran the kingdom well. She mastered in martial arts and inspired Jhansi’s women to join army and take a more active role in defending the country. All these made her an unusual woman for her times.