India After Independence
Activity (Page 129)
Imagine that you are a British administrator leaving India in 1947. You are writing a letter home where you discuss what is likely to happen to India without the British. What would be your views about the future of India ?
(1) Without the British, India would not remain united but it would divide into various parts : among different language speakers between high castes and low castes; Hindu and Muslim; the rich and the poor.
(2) It would again adopt some inhuman customs and become an uncivilised country.
(3) Indians are incompetent to take responsibility. They have no sense of duty and a commitment to work. So, the country would again be enslaved.
Activity (Page 131)
Imagine a conversation between a father and son in a Muslim family. After Partition, the son thinks it would be wiser for them to move to Pakistan while the father believes that they should continue to live in India. Taking information from the chapter so far (and Chapter 11), act out what each would say.
Student, do yourself.
Activity (Page 132)
Discuss in your class, one advantage and one disadvantage today of the decision to keep English as a language of India.
- Today, India is a major outsourcing destination. It links us with the rest part of the world.
- English as a language of India unites the whole country, i.e., the north and the south.
- English creates a sense of inferiority in the minds of a majority of Indians.
- English cripples Indians, makes distance between them from their own social surroundings and makes them strangers in their own lands.
Activity (Page 135)
Look at Figs. 5(a), 5(b) and 5(c) (Textbook). Notice how the Princely States
disappear in Fig. 5(6). Identify the new states that were formed in 1956 and later and the languages of these states.
|States formed in 1956||Languages||States formed after 1956||Languages|
|Andhra Pradesh||Telugu, Urdu||Arunachal Pradesh||English ,Hindi|
|Madhya Pradesh||Hindi||Chhattisgarh||Chhattisgarhi, Hindi|
|Himachal Pradesh||Hindi, Punjabi|
|Meghalaya||English, Khasi, Garo|
|Uttarakhand||English, Hindi, Urdu|
Exercise Questions and Answers
Name three problems that the newly independent nation of India faced.
(1) As a result of Partition, 8 million refugees had come into the country from what was now Pakistan. These people had to be found homes and jobs.
(2) There was the problem of the princely states, almost 500 of them, each ruled by a maharaja or a nawab. Each of whom had to be persuaded to join the new nation.
(3) The new nation had also to adopt a political system that would best serve the hopes and expectations of its population.
What was the role of the Planning Commission ?
(1) The role of the Planning Commission was to help design and execute suitable policies for economic development.
(2) Both the State and the private sector would play important and complementary roles in increasing production and generating jobs. So, the role of the Commission was to define that which industries should be initiated by the state and which by the market, how to achieve a balance between the different regions and states.
(3) Ultimately, lifting India and Indians out of poverty and building a modern technical and industrial base were the main objectives of the Planning Commission.
Fill in the blanks :
(a) Subjects that were placed on the Union List were _____ ,______ And _____ .
- Foreign affairs.
(b) Subjects on the Concurrent List were ______ and _____
(c) Economic Planning by which both the State and the private sector played a role in development was called a _____ model.
(d) The death of _____ sparked off such violent protests that the government was forced to give into the demand for the linguistic state of Andhra.
State whether true or false :
(a) At Independence, the majority of Indians lived in villages.
(b) The Constituent Assembly was made up of members of the Congress Party.
(c) In the first national election* only men were allowed to vote.
(d) The Second Five Year Plan focused on the development of heavy industry.
What did Dr. Ambedkar mean when he said that “In politics we will have equality, and in social and economic life we will have inequality” ?
(1) Dr. Ambedkar pointed out that political democracy had to be accompanied by economic and social democracy.
(2) He wanted to say that giving the right to vote would not automatically lead to the removal of other inequalities such as between rich and poor, or between upper and lower castes.
(3) He meant that with the new Constitution, India was going to enter into a life of contra¬dictions. In politics, we will be recognising the principle of one man one vote and one value. While in our social and economic life, we shall, by reason of our social and economic structure, continue to deny the principle of one man one value.
After Independence, why was there a reluctance to divide the country on linguistic lines ?
India had been divided on the basis of religion. As a result of the partition of India, more than a million people had been killed in riots between Hindus and Muslims. So, the country could not afford further divisions on the basis of language. That was why, both Prime Minister, Nehru and Deputy Prime Minister Vallabhbhai Patel were against the creation of linguistic states.
Give one reason why English continued to be used in India after Independence.
Since a vast majority of the population of southern India did not speak Hindi but English, they could threaten to separate from India if Hindi was imposed on them.
How was the economic develop¬ment of India visualised in the early decades after Independence ?
The economic development was visualised through steel plant, bridges, dams, etc. in the early decades after Independence. All these came to be seen as an important sign of the development of modern India after Independence.
Who was Mira Behn ? Find out more about her life and her ideas.
(1) Mira Behn was an English women and her original name Was Madelene Slade. She was like a daughter of Bapu and often acted as a bridge between him and the British bureaucracy.
(2) (1)Mira Behn (November 22, 1892— July 20,1982) was daughter of British admiral. She left her home in England to live and work with Gandhi.
(2)She devoted her life to human develop-ment, the advancement of Gandhi’s principles and the freedom struggle in India. She was awarded Padma Vibhushan in 1982.
Find out more about the language divisions in Pakistan that led to the creation of the new nation of Bangladesh. How did Bangladesh achieve independence from Pakistan ?
(1) When the State of Pakistan was formed in 1947, it had two wings, one to the West of India and the other to the East. The two regions were split along cultural, geographical and linguistic lines. In 1948, the government of Pakistan ordained Urdu as sole national language which sparked extensive protests among the Bengali-speaking majority of East Pakistan.
The Bengali Language Movement of 1952 was the first sign of friction between the two wings of Pakistan. This movement was a political effort in then East Pakistan, which advocated the recognition of the Bengali language as an official language of Pakistan.
(2) Apart from linguistic discrimination, political and economic neglect led to popular agitations against West Pakistan. This led to the war of independence in 1971. With the help of Indian troops in the last few weeks of the war, East Pakistan defeated West Pakistan on December 16, 1971. This resulted in the establishment of Bangladesh. In February 1974, Pakistan also agreed to recognise the independent State of Bangladesh.