The Making of the National Movement 1870s -1947
Activity (Page 111)
From the beginning the Congress sought to speak for, and in the name of, all the Indian people. Why did it choose to do so ?
It chose to do so because it had to establish itself as an all-India organisation. Otherwise, it would not fulfil its basic purpose. This was because, the establishment of the Indian National Congress was the result of the need felt for an all-India organisation of educated Indians since 1880.
Activity (Page 112)
What problems regarding the early Congress does this comment highlight?
This comment highlights the problems of early Congress in the following ways :
- The leaders of early Congress were rich and often engaged in their personal work.
- They did not take much interest and devote sufficient time for the organisation.
Activity (Page 114)
Find out which countries fought the First World War. •
The First World War (1914-1918) involved more than 100 countries. The two sides of the war were the Allied Powers and the Central Powers.
- The Allies were led by Great Britain, France, Russia,and Italy.
- The central powers were led by Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire.
Activity (Page 116)
Find out about the Jallianwala Bagh massacre. What is Jallianwala Bagh ? What atrocities were committed there ? How were they committed ?
(1) On the day of 13th April 1919, many people gathered in a closed space at Jallianwala Bagh in the Amritsar city.
(2) General Dyre opened fire upon these innocent citizens who included women and children too. Hundreds of them died.
(3) The Martial Law had already been imposed in the city. General Dyre, in order to teach a lesson on violating the Law, entered the area with a small military force. They blocked the exit points and opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds.
Activity (Page 119)
Read Source 4 (Textbook).According to this report, how did people view Mahatma Gandhi ? Why do you think they felt that he was opposed to zamindars but not to the government ?Why do you think they were in favour of Gandhiji?
- People viewed Mahatma Gandhi as a Sadhu, a Pandit, a Brahmin, even a deota.
- I think so because he got hedakhli, i.e., illegal eviction stopped in Pratapgarh.
- I think so because the people said, “We are for Gandhiji and the Sarkar”
Let’s Imagine (Page 127)
Imagine that you are involved in the Indian national movement. Based on your reading of this chapter, briefly discuss your preferred methods of struggle and your vision of a free India.
(1)I would prefer to struggle through the methods of non-violence, civil disobedience, strikes. This is because, through this methods, the people could play more constructive role in the national movement. It would not be wisdom to struggle with violence and loose our lives by the bullets of the British.
(2) My vision of a free India is as a country where every people live in a sense of dignity and self-respect. There is no poverty and it recovers its lost status as a ‘golden bird’ in the world.
Exercise Questions and Answers
Why were people dissatisfied with British rule in the 1870s and 1880s ?
- The Arms Act was passed in 1878, disallowing Indians from possessing arms.
- The Vernacular Press Act was enacted in an effort to silence those who were critical of the government.
- In 1883, the government attempted to introduce the Ilbert Bill. The bill provided for the trial of British persons by Indians. But when white opposition forced the government to withdraw the bill, Indians became enraged.
- Many political associations came into existence in the 1879s and 1880s which highlighted the issues.
Who did the Indian National Congress wish to speak for?
The Indian National Congress wished to speak not for any one class or community of India, but for all the different communities of India.
What economic impact did the First World War have on india?
The First World War had the following economic impact on India :
(1) In order to meet a huge rise in the defence expenditure, the government increased taxes on individual incomes and business profits.
(2) Increased military expenditure and the demands for war supplies led to a sharp rise in prices which created great difficulties for the common people.
(3) The war created a demand for industrial goods like jute bags, cloth, rail, etc. and caused a decline of imports from other countries into India.
(4) Indian industries expanded during the war and Indian business groups began to demand greater opportunities for development.
(5) Business groups reaped fabulous profits from the war.
What did the Muslim League resolution of 1940 ask for?
The Muslim League resolution of 1940 asked for “Independent States” for Muslims in the north-western and eastern areas of the country.
Who were the Moderates? How did they propose to struggle against British rule ?
(1) Those Congress leaders were called Moderates who were “moderate” in their objectives and methods.
- They proposed for a greater voice for Indians in the government and in administration.
- They wanted the Legislative Councils to be made more representative, given more power, and introduced in provinces where not existed.
- They demanded that Indians be placed in high positions in the government.
- The moderate leaders wanted to develop public awareness about the unjust nature of British rule.
- They wanted to make the government aware of the feelings of Indians.
How was the polities of the Radicals within the Congress different from that of the Moderates ?
The politics of the Radicals within the Congress was different from that of the Moderates in the following ways :
|The polities of the Radicals||The polities of the Moderates|
|1. They explored more Radical objectives and methods.||They were moderates in their objectives and methods.|
|2. They criticized the moderates for their polities of prayers and emphasized the importance of self-reliance and constructive work.||They were doing polities of prayers.|
|3. They argued that people must fight for swaraj.||They wanted to make the government aware of the feelings of Indians.|
|4. They did not believe on the good intentions of the government.||They felt that the British had respect for the ideals of freedom and justice and so they would accept the just demands of Indians.|
Discuss the various forms that the Non-Cooperation movement took i different parts of India. How did the people understand Gandhiji?
(1) In kheda, Gujarat, Patidar peasants organised non-violent campaigns against the high land revenue demand of the British.
(2) In the Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh, tribals and poor peasants staged a number of “Forest satyagrahas”.
(3) In coastal Andhra and tamil nadu,liquor shops were picketed.
(4) In sind and Bengal, the khilafat non-cooperation alliance gave enoemous communal unity and strenght to the national movement.
(5) In Punjab, the Akali agitation of the Sikhs sought to remove corrupt mahants from their gurudwaras.
(6) In Assam, tea garden labourers demanded a big increase in their wages.
Why did Gandhi ji choose to break the salt law?
Gandhi ji choose to break the salt law because in his view, it was sinful to tax salt since it is an essential item of our food that is used by the rich or the poor person in the same quantity.
Discuss those developments of the 1937-47 period that led to the creation of Pakistan.
(1) The Congress’ failure to mobilise the Muslim masses in the 1930s allowed the League to widen its social support.
(2) The League sought to enlarge its support in the early 1940s when most Congress leaders were in jail.
(3) After the Second World War, the British opened negotiations between the Congress, the League and themselves. The talks failed because the League saw itself as the sole spokes-persons of India’s Muslims. The Congress did not accept it.
(4) In provincial elections, 1946, the League’s success in the seats reserved for Muslims was spectacular. It persisted with its demand for “Pakistan”.
(5) In March 1946, the British Cabinet mission could not get the Congress and the Muslim League to agree to specific details of the proposal.
(6) The League announced 16 August 1946 as “Direct Action Day”. On this day riots broke out in Calcutta and by March 1947, violence spread to different parts of northern India.
Find out how the national movement was organised in your city, district, area or state. Who participated in it and who led it ? What did the movement in your area achieve ?
(1) Our state, Bihar was an important part of India’s struggle for independence. In particular, wealthy and educated people organised the national movement.
(2) Generally, all sections of the society
participated in the movement. Even in the beginning of the movement, Babu Kunwar Singh of Rajput Royal house of Jagdishpur and his army as well as countless Other persons from Bihar contributed to the India’s First War of Independence. : .
(3) The movement was led by many outstanding leaders like Babu Kunwar Singh, Swami Sahajanand Saraswati, Desh Ratna Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Bihar Kesari Sri Krishna Sinha, Bihar Bibhuti Anugrah Narayan Sinha, Mulana Mazharul Haque, Loknayak Jayprakash Narayan, Satyendra Narayan Sinha, Yogendra Shukla and many others. Khudiram Bose, Upendra Narayan Jha “Azad” and Prafulla Chaki were also active in revolutionary movement in Bihar.
(4) In India’s struggle for independence, the “Champaran Satyagraha” marks a very important stage. This marked Gandhiji’s entry into the India’s struggle for freedom. Local leader, Raj Kumar Shukla drew the attention of Mahatma Gandhi to the plight of the peasants suffering under an oppressive system established by European indigo planters. Ultimately, the system was abolished. Gandhi became the mass leader Only after the Champaran Satyagraha.
Find out more about the life and work of any two participants or leaders of the national movement and write a short essay about them. You may choose a person not mentioned in this chapter.
(1) Kunwar Singh : Babu Veer Kunwar Singh (1777-1858) was a zamindar of Jagdishpur near Arrah in the state of Bihar. At the age of 80 years, during India’s First War of Independence (1857-58), he assumed command of the soldiers who had revolted at Danapur on 5 July 1857.
Two days later, he occupied Arrah which was relieved by Major Eyre on 3rd August. He recorded victories in many battles. In his last battle which was fought on 23 April 1858 near Jagdishpur, Kunwar Singh had a victory over the force led by Captain Le Grand. On 26 April 1858, he died in his village.
(2) Sarojini Naidu : Sarojini Naidu (February 13, 1879— March 2, 1949), “the Nightingale of India” was a distinguished poet, renowned freedom fighter and one of the great Orators of her time. In 1898, she got married to Govindarajulu Naidu, a doctor by profession.
She presided over the annual session of Indian National Congress at Kanpur (1925). She had a leading role in Salt Satyagraha and consecutive struggles. She was President of National Women’s Conference for many years and trained many volunteers who took up women’s cause. She was the first woman to be appointed in 1947 as the Governor of the United Province (Presently—Uttar Pradesh).