How, When and Where
Activity (Page 1)
Look carefully at Fig. 1 (Textbook) and write a paragraph explaining how this image projects an imperial perception.
In Fig. 1 the artist is trying to show that the Brahmins (which were supposed to be the saviour of Indian culture) are handing over their charge to the British to take care of India and its people. The picture projects the British as victorious.
Activity (Page 3)
Interview your mother or another member of your family to find out about their life. Now divide their life into different periods and list out the significant events in each period. Explain the basis of your periodisation.
Son : Mom, when were you born ?
Mother : I was born 40 years ago from now. It was the year of 1968.
Son : Mausi once told me that you were a very good student during your school days. Tell me some¬thing about your school days.
Mother : O.K When I was five years old, I was admitted to a nearby school. Those days not many girl students came to school. Girls were traditionally supposed to learn “ and do household works, especially in villages. But, your Nanaji always encouraged me to study.
Son : O.K. Did Nanaji use to teach you as my father does ?
Mother : Yes, of course, whenever he was free, he taught me Hindi poems. He used to tell me stories from the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. He had a good knowledge of Mathematics.
Son : So, when did you pass your matriculation (10th class).
Mother : My son, the school in my village was only upto class VIII. I passed class VIII with second position in the
Son : So, after eighth, you dropped your study.
Mother : No, not exactly. At that time I was 13 years old. There was a secondary school in another village. The school was about 20 km. away from my village. So, your Nanaji decided not to send me to that school. My mother taught me various household works.
Son : Then, what happened ?
Mother : When I was 18 years old and passed my matriculation and 12th class. I was married to your Papa. With him I came to the town.
Son : Did Papa allow you to go to study ?
Mother : Yes, your papa has been very supportive. He brought books for me. I used to study at home.
Son : So, you are 12th passed.
Mother : No son, I am a graduate. In the course of time, I got admitted to a college and passed my graduation. Then I joined B.Ed Course. Ask your teacher, she is also a B.Ed.
Son : Oh! Now I understand that why you joined the teaching profession.
Mother : Yes my son, then I joined a school as a teacher. After two years, you were born. So, for your proper care, I decided to resign. When you were admitted to LKG only then once again I joined my job. Now you are in Class VIII. Do hard work and do something good in your life.
Son : Thank you Mummy for telling me this much about your life. I will try my best to fulfill your desires.The life of mother can be divided into three periods on the following basis.
- The period of school education (5 to 18 years) — During this period mother got her school education.
- The period of family life — During this period mother got married, took the responsibility of household works and looked after her child.
Activity (Page 7)
Look at Sources 1 and 2. Do you find any differences in the nature of reporting? Explain what you observe.
Yes, the two reports differ from each other in their nature.
In Source 1, the reporting is from a government official who is explaining the actions taken against the mutineers. This does not reveal the reasons why this situation had been reached at. This does not highlight the views of the mutineers.
On the other hand, the report in Source 2 describes why the police have staged strikes, where the strike has been staged and how. This report is an example of neutral reporting by the media, so more realistic. This highlights the attitude of the government against the colonized.
Let’s Imagine (Page 8)
Imagine that you are a historian wanting to find out about how agriculture changed in a remote tribal area after independence. List the different ways in which you would find information on this.
Following are some ways in which we can gather information about the change in agriculture in the remote tribal area :
- We can gather reports from the office of the collector of the concerned area.
- We can gather information from the journals, newspapers, magazines, etc.
- We can gather information from the agriculture department of the concerned state.
- We can personally go to that area and interview a few elderly people to know about the changes they have witnessed in agriculture after independence.
Exercise Questions and Answers
State whether true or false :
(a) James Mill divided Indian history into three periods
(b) Official documents help us understand what the people of the country think.
(c) The British thought surveys were important for effective administration.
What is the problem with the periodisation of Indian history that James Mill offers?
James Mill tried to divide Indian history into Hindu, Muslim and Christian periods. This periodisation is based on religious lines that there was a phase for which the Hindus were the rulers and other’s were ruled. Then came the phase of the Muslims or Christians (i.e., Britishers). He had a colonial bent of mind and thought Asians to have .
poorly civilized. He thought Europeans to be superior. So, in fact, through this periodisation he tried to divide the people with their own specific identity, which was not a truth.
During the Muslim rule there were thousands of Hindu kings. The same was the case during the Christian period when India had thousands of local Hindu and Muslim princely states. So, this is not a proper periodontist of Indian History.
Why did the British preserve official documents?
British were of the opinion that to write about things and events is very important. By doing so, one gets a chance to study things and events and discuss those.
How will the information historians get from old newspapers be different from that found in police reports ?
Usually the newspaper reports are not biased. These reports explain the fact as it was. Most of the times, these do not try to manipulate the event. These represent the true story of the event with every detail. On the other hand, the official reports are usually biased.
These are written as per the will of the senior officials. These reports may carry the biased view of the reporting police officer. Thus if the historians are based only on the police i reports, they may become misguided.
Can you think of examples of v surveys in your world today? Think about how toy companies get information about what young people enjoy playing with or how the government finds out about the number of young people in school. What can a historian derive from such surveys?
Today, various types of surveys are carried on both by the government and private enterprises. Government carries surveys like census in which various details of a family are collected. Similarly, Companies carry surveys for the use of their products and to find the prospective customers. For example, survey is conducted for the various purposes regarding soap, shampoo, vehicles, etc. used by the people.
The toy companies prepare a questionnaire and print them on a sheet of paper. Their representatives visit school and distribute these papers among young people after the school is over. Young people are asked to tick (✓) or cross (×) options of their choice. Then they get these papers back. In their office, they obtain data from these papers and derive their conclusion about the play liked by young people.
The government carries out census every 10 years. Each household provides details of its children. It is from this detail that the government comes to know about the number of young people in the school. Also, it can collect data from the school directly.
From these data historian can come to know about the education level and sportsmanship of the generation under survey. Also, they can derive information on the household size, etc.