Text Book Page No. 71
Look at the collage on the page 70 of textbook and list six various kinds of media that you see.
The six various kinds of media are as under :
Ask older members of your family about what they used to listen to on the radio when there was no TV around. Find out from them when the first TV came to your area. When was cable TV introduced?
[Hints : Students should do these questions themselves. But for their help, a sample of answers is given on next column ]
- The older member of my family says that they used to listen news and songs on the radio when there was no TV in my locality.
- They say that the first TV came to my area in 1980 s.
- The cable TV was introduced in 1990 s in my area.
How many people in your neighbourhood use the internet ?
There are three people in my neighbourhood who use the internet.
List three things that you know about some other parts of the world from watching television ?
- The headquarters of the United Nations situated in New York, USA.
- Hiding Park in England.
- Capital punishment, i.e., hang to death of Saddam Husain in Baghdad (Iraq).
Text Book Page No. 72
Can you list three different products that are advertised during your favourite TV programme ?
[Hints : Students have to do this question themselves. But, for their convenience, a sample answer is done below :]
My favourite TV programme is news I see many products advertised during news report as LUX soap, Close-up tooth paste and Tide washing soap.
Take a newspaper and count the number of advertisement on it. Some people say that newspapers have too many advertisements. Do you think this is true and why ?
[Hints : Students have to do this question themselves. But a sample of answer is given below for their help.]
- I counted 145 advertisements in ‘Hindustan Times’.
- Yes, Newspapers have too many advertisements. The reason is that every newspaper is published by private publishing house as a business to earn profit. So, unless there will be more advertisement, they will not earn profit.
Text Book Page No. 74
Are the stories given on page 74 of the textbook in the two newspapers similar ? And if not, why not ? What, in your view, are the similarities and the differences ?
(1) The stories in these two newspapers are not similar in totality.
(2) The stories are not similar because neither of the two newspapers have given a balanced news-report. It means they are not as independent as media should be for giving a balanced news-report for the success of democracy.
(3) Similarities : Similarities in my view are that both the newspapers have reported on the same topic i.e., ‘closure of factories’. In both the newspapers, the protest by the factories’ owners and workers are highlighted.
(4) Differences : The news-report in the ‘News of India’ has pointed out that protestors were disrupting traffic and polluting the city continuously. But, the story in the ‘India Daily’ has related the protest.with the livelihoods of the workers and factory owners because of the closure of the factories.
If you read the story in the ‘News of India’, what would you think about the issue ?
If I shall read the story in the ‘News of India’, I shall think that the news story is not balanced about the issue covered.
Text Book Page No. 75
Do you think it is important to know both sides of the story ? Why ?
- Yes, it is important to know both sides of the story ?
- The reason being that the people take action as citizens on the basis of the information the media provides them. So it is very important that this information be balanced, reliable and unbiased.
Pretend that you are a journalist for a newspaper and write a balanced story from the two news reports.
(1) The closure of one lakh factories in the city’s residential areas led the factory owners and workers together on Monday in the streets and protest the closure.
(2) The closure of the factories is going to destory the means of livehoods of lakhs of owners and workers.
(3) The government has decided to shift the factories to another areas and not close for them for ever.
(4) Because, these factories are polluting the city. It has become a major hindrance in making the city clean and green to develop it as India’s new business centre.
(5) But Mr. Sharma, one of the factory owners said, “The government says that it has done a lot to relocate us. But the areas the government is willing to send us to, have no adequate facilities and not been developed for the last five years.” So it is a serious issue both for providing livelihood to the factory owners and the workers and to make the city clean and green.
(6) The government should take necessary steps to provide adequate facilities for relocation. And the factory owners and workers should accept.the relocation offered instead of protesting.
Text Book Page No. 77
What is the consequence of the media ‘setting the agenda! by reporting on the Fashion Week’rather than the slum demolitions ?
The consequence of the media ‘setting the agenda’ by reporting on the Fashion Week rather than the slum demolitions are the following:
(1) Several local groups have started their own media. For example, “Khabar Lahriya’ a fortnightly newspaper is started by eight Dalit women in Chitrakoot district, in Uttar Pradesh. It is in ‘Bundeli’, a local language.
(2) Several people from NGOs have started using community radio to advise farmers about the use of seeds and fertilizers, and price of different crops.
(3) Some local poor people started documentary films with cheap video cameras on real life conditions of poor communities.
Can you think of an issue that does not seem important to you because it is never featured in the media ?
No. I cannot think of an issue that does not seem important to me because it is never featured in the media. Each and every issue is important from its own point of view but media highlights only those issues which fulfill their interest at large.
Exercise Questions and Answers
In what ways does the media play an important role in a democracy ?
Media plays an important role in a democracy in the following ways :
- It provides informations about the working of and decisions taken by the government for the welfare of the citizen.
- It also makes the government aware j of the public reactions on its working and / decisions.
- It discusses different events of public interest in detail taking place in the country and all over the world.
Can you give the diagram shown below a title ? What do you understand about the link between media and big business from this diagram ?
(1) Title of the diagram : Products and Money flow through media.
(2) In this diagram there are two types of links indicated between the media and big business :
(a) Some big business houses have their own media.
(b) Big business houses advertise their products in media to sell.
You have read about the ways in which the media ‘sets the agenda*. What kind of effect does this have in a democracy ? Provide two examples to support your point of view.
Media, the fourth pillar of democracy, sets the agenda to focus on the issue of public interest. This agenda sometimes has positive effects in a. democracy. For example,
(1) Media published report about alarming levels of pesticides in Cola drinks. Media declared this fact despite the government’s resistance that Cola drinks were unsafe. Thus, media’s agenda helped us by focusing on an issue that affects our lives.
(2) The media sometimes fails to set agenda to raise issue significant in democracy. For example, it publishes a wide coverage about the ‘World Cup’ but at the same time it does not give attention towards the issue like drinking water as a major problem, the people are facing.
As a Class Project, decide to focus on a particular news topic and cut out stories from different newspapers on this. Also watch the coverage of this topic on TV news. Compare two newspapers tend write down the similarity and differences in their reports. It might help to ask the following questions :
(a) What information is this article providing ?
(b) What information is it leaving out?
(c) From whose point of view is the article being written ?
(d) Whose point of view is being left out and why ?
[Hints: To do this project, take two different news papers for example “Time of India” and “Hindustan Times”. Go through both the papers of the same day. Choose any particular news heading in both the papers. Also watch the different TV channels for this particular news headlines. And answer the questions given with the help of newspaper cutting and news watched in different T.V. Channels.]