Page No 46
1. Multiple choice questions.
(i) Which one of the following describes a system of agriculture where a single crop is grown on a large area?
- (a) Shifting Agriculture
- (b) Plantation Agriculture
- (c) Horticulture
- (d) Intensive Agriculture
(ii) Which one of the following is a rabi crop?
- (a) Rice
- (c) Millets
- (b) Gram
- (d) Cotton
(iii) Which one of the following is a leguminous crop?
- (a) Pulses
- (c) Millets
- (b) Jawar
- (d) Sesamum
2. Answer the following questions in 30 words.
(i) Name one important beverage crop and specify the geographical conditions required for its growth.
One important beverage crop is tea.
The tea plant grows well in tropical and sub-tropical climates endowed with deep and fertile well-drained soil, rich in humus and organic matter. Tea bushes require warm and moist frost-free climate all through the year.
Frequent showers evenly distributed over the year ensure continuous growth of tender leaves. Tea is a labour-intensive industry. It requires abundant, cheap and skilled labour. Tea is processed within the tea garden to restore its freshness.
(ii) Name one staple crop of India and the regions where it is produced.
Rice is a major staple crop of India.
It is grown in the following regions.
- Plains of North
- North East India
- Coastal Areas
- Deltaic Regions
(iii) Enlist the various institutional reform programmes introduced by the government in the interest of farmers.
Various institutional reform programmes introduced by the Government are
- MSP (Minimum Support Price)
- Subsidy on Fertilisers
- Crop insurance
- Establishment of Grameen banks to provide low-interest loans
(iv) The land under cultivation has got reduced day by day. Can you imagine its consequences?
- Shortage of food
- The rise in prices of food
- Imports increase will put stress on the economy
- Rise in Unemployment
3. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.
(i) Suggest the initiative taken by the government to ensure the increase in agricultural production.
The Government of India embarked upon introducing agricultural reforms to improve Indian agriculture in the 1960s and 1970s. The Green Revolution based on the use of package technology and the White Revolution (Operation Flood) were some of the strategies initiated to improve a lot of Indian agriculture.
But, this too led to the concentration of development in a few selected areas. Therefore, in the 1980s and 1990s, a comprehensive land development programme was initiated, which included both institutional and technical reforms.
Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire and disease, the establishment of Grameen banks, cooperative societies and banks for providing loan facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interest were some important steps in this direction.
Kissan Credit Card (KCC), Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS) are some other schemes introduced by the Government of India for the benefit of the farmers. Moreover, special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers were introduced on the radio and television.
The government also announces minimum support price, remunerative and procurement prices for important crops to check the exploitation of farmers by speculators and middlemen.
(ii) Describe the impact of globalisation on Indian agriculture.
Globalisation is not a new phenomenon. It was there at the time of colonisation. In the nineteenth century, when European traders came to India, at that time too, Indian spices were exported to different countries of the world and farmers of south India were encouraged to grow these crops.
Till today, it is one of the important items of export from India. Under globalisation, particularly after 1990, the farmers in India have been exposed to new challenges.
Despite being an important producer of rice, cotton, rubber, tea, coffee, jute and spices, our agricultural products are not able to compete with the developed countries because of the highly subsidised agriculture in those countries. Today, Indian agriculture finds itself at the crossroads.
To make agriculture successful and profitable, proper thrust should be given to the improvement of the condition of marginal and small farmers.