Resources and Development
Page No 12
1. Multiple choice questions.
(i) Which one of the following type of resource is iron ore?
- (a) Renewable
- (b) Biotic
- (c) Flow
- (d) Non-renewable
(ii) Under which of the following type of resource tidal energy cannot be put?
- (a) Replenishable
- (b) Human-made
- (c) Abiotic
- (d) Non-recyclable
(iii) Which one of the following is the main cause of land degradation in Punjab?
- (a) Intensive cultivation
- (b) Deforestation
- (c) Over irrigation
- (d) Overgrazing
(iv) In which one of the following states is terrace cultivation practised?
- (a) Punjab
- (b) Plains of Uttar Pradesh
- (c) Haryana
- (d) Uttarakhand
(v) In which of the following states black soil is predominantly found?
- (a) Jammu and Kashmir
- (b) Maharashtra
- (c) Rajasthan
- (d) Jharkhand
2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) Name three states having black soil and the crop which is mainly grown in it.
3 states are
- Madhya Pradesh
The crop grown is cotton.
(ii) What type of soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coast? Give three main features of this type of soil.
The type of soil found in river deltas is Alluvial Soil.
- Very fertile, and therefore good for the cultivation of crops
- Consists of various proportions of sand, silt and clay
- It has a good quantity of potash, lime and phosphoric acid, which is good for the growth of paddy and sugarcane.
(iii) What steps can be taken to control soil erosion in the hilly areas?
The main techniques that can be used are given below.
- Contour ploughing
- Terrace farming
- Strips of grass are allowed to grow between the crops. This method is known as strip cropping.
(iv) What are the biotic and abiotic resources? Give some examples.
- These are resources that are obtained from the biosphere
- These resources have life
- Examples are plants, animals, fish, human beings, livestock etc.
- These resources are composed of non-living things
- Examples are water, minerals, metals, wind, solar energy etc.
3. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.
(i) Explain the land use pattern in India and why has the land under forest not increased much since 1960-61?
The use of land is determined both by physical factors such as topography, climate, soil types as well as human factors such as population density, technological capability and culture and traditions etc. The pattern of the net sown area varies greatly from one state to another.
It is over 80 per cent of the total area in Punjab and Haryana and less than 10 per cent in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur and Andaman Nicobar Islands. Forest area in the country is far lower than the desired 33 per cent of geographical area, as it was outlined in the National Forest Policy (1952).
It was considered essential for the maintenance of the ecological balance. A part of the land is termed as wasteland and land put to other non-agricultural uses. Wasteland includes rocky, arid and desert areas and land put to other non-agricultural uses includes settlements, roads, railways, industry etc.
Continuous use of land over a long period of time without taking appropriate measures to conserve and manage has resulted in land degradation.
(ii) How has technical and economic development led to more consumption of resources?
There are various reasons for this.
- Large scale production led to over utilisation of resources.
- Technological advancement led to greater exploitation of resources.
- Improved medical and health resources led to huge consumption of resources.