Q1. Development of a country can generally be determined by
(i) its per capita income
(ii) its average literacy level
(iii) health status of its people
(iv) all the above
(iv) all the above
Q2. Which of the following neighbouring countries has better performance in terms of human development than India?
(ii) Sri Lanka
(ii) Sri Lanka
Q3. Assume there are four families in a country. The average per capita income of these families is Rs 5000. If the income of three families is Rs 4000, Rs 7000 and Rs 3000 respectively, what is the income of the fourth family?
(i) Rs 7500
(ii) Rs 3000
(iii) Rs 2000
(iv) Rs 6000
(iii) Rs 6000
Q4. What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? What are the limitations of this criterion, if any?
- In the World Development Report, 2006, the World Bank has used the criterion of average income or per capita income in classifying different countries.
- The average income or the per capita income is the total income of the country divided by its population.
(II) According to the WDR 2006, countries are classified as mentioned below :
- Rich countries : Countries with per capital income of? 4,53,000 per annum and above in 2004 are called rich countries
- Low-income countries : Countries with per capital income of? 37,000 or less are called low-income countries.
- India comes in the category of low-income countries because its per capital income in 2004 was just ? 28,000 per annum.
- Rich countries, excluding countries of Middle East and certain other small countries are generally called developed countries.
(III) Limitations of the criterion are as mentioned below :
- It does not tell us how this income is distributed among people. A country may have more equitable distribution. People may be neither very rich nor extremely poor.
- In another country with same average income, one person may be extremely rich while others may be very poor. So, the method of average income does not give correct picture of a country.
- This system hides disparities among people.
Q5. In what respects is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank?
- The criterion used by World Bank: The average income, i.e. per capita income is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries.
According to the World Development Report 2006, published by the World Bank, countries with per capita income of $10066 per annum and above in 2004 are called rich or developed countries. On the other hand, countries with per capita income of $825 or less are called low-income countries.
- The UNDP compares countries based on HDI e., on the educational levels of the people, their health status and per capital income or average income.
- Human Development Index used by UNDP is better because it is a wider indicator in which besides per capital income, health and education are also included.
Q6. Why do we use averages? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with your own examples related to the development.
(1) We use averages for comparison between two countries, two persons or any two or more things.
(2) There are the following limitations to the use of averages :
- Averages do not tell us about similarities or differences between two countries or persons or things.
- By averages only one aspect income, size etc. in case of country, marks or participation in sports activities etc. in case of student, can be compared. All aspects or achievements are not compared.
- As only one aspect is compared, it does not give true picture of different countries, persons or things. For example, students differ in height, health, talents and interests. The healthiest student may not be the most intelligent or topper in studies. Similar is the case in respect of countries or states. A country may be ahead than the other country in one field but may lag behind in the other field. So averages do not give the correct picture.
Q7. Kerala, with lower per capita income, has a better human development ranking than Punjab. Hence, per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states. Do you agree? Discuss.
It is correct to say that per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states due to reasons as mentioned below :
- Money cannot buy all the goods and services that you need to live well. Income by itself is not a completely adequate indicator of material goods and services that citizens are able to use.
- There cannot be a pollution-free environment in a colony of rich people unless the whole community takes preventive steps.
- Sometimes, it is better to have collective services like security for the whole locality than to have individual security for one’s own house. Again a school may be opened for the children of the whole community than for one or two children of a rich person.
- Kerala has a better human development ranking than Punjab.
- In Kerala, Infant Mortality Rate is 11 in comparison to 49 in Punjab, where the per capita income is much more than Kerala. It is ? 26000 whereas in Kerala it is ? 22800. It is because Kerala has adequate basic health and educational facilities.
- Similarly in some states, the Public Distribution System (PDS) functions well and people get ration regularly whereas in some states ration shops do not function properly. At such places, people face a shortage of grains that affect their health. Thus it is clear that the states should not be compared on the basis of per capita income – alone.
Q8. Find out the present sources of energy that are used by the people in India. What could be the other possibilities fifty years from now?
The present sources of energy that are used by the people of India are electricity, coal, crude oil, cowdung and solar energy. Other possibilities fifty years from now, could include ethanol, bio-diesel, nuclear energy and better utilization of wind energy, especially with the imminent danger of oil resources running out.
Q9. Why is the issue of sustainability is important for development?
Sustainable development means that development should meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. However, since the second half of the twentieth century, a number of scientists have been warning that the present type and levels of development are not sustainable.
The issue of sustainable development has emerged from rapid industrialization of the world in the past century. It is felt that economic growth and industrialization have led to the reckless exploitation of natural resources. On the other hand, the stock of natural resources are limited.
So, the growth of all countries in the future is likely to be endangered if the limited resources are completely exhausted.
Under these circumstances, the issue of sustainability has become important for development. A number of resources are being overused. For example, groundwater is under serious threat of overuse in many parts of the country i.e., Punjab, Haryana and western U.P.
The water level has declined over 4 meters. As a result of it if we go on overusing there will be a water crisis in future. Similarly, if non-renewable resources are used recklessly these will also be exhausted.
Q10. “The Earth has enough resources to meet the need of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person.” How is this statement relevant to the discussion of development? Discuss.
This statement is relevant to the discussion of development since both resources and development go hand in hand. As the statement claims, our earth has enough resources – renewable and non-renewable to satisfy everyone’s need if we use them in an economic manner.
For the sustainability of development, the consumption and maintenance of resources is also crucial. We have to use the resources keeping our environment protected and clear so that there is a balance between the development and use of our resources.
As otherwise after a certain point of time in future the development will be stagnated.
Q11. List a few examples of environmental degradation that you may have observed around you.
Some of the examples of environmental degradation in the area are as follows :
- Air pollution has increased due to the emission of smoke from factories and vehicles.
- There is an increase in water pollution due to shops and small factories in residential areas.
- There is noise pollution due to the use of loudspeakers at night and blowing of horns unnecessarily on the roads by different vehicles.
- People throw garbage wherever they want. Perhaps there is no provision for dustbins in the streets or roadsides.
- Sometimes people urinate in the open on the roadside due to a lack of public conveniences.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. Which one of the following countries has the largest size of the illiterate population in the age group of 15 + in the world? [CBSE (CCE) 2011]
(b) Sri Lanka
2. Development of a country can generally be determined by its: [CBSE (CCE) 2011]
(a) per capita income
(b) average.literacy Ieve4
(c) health status of its people
(d) none of these
3. We can obtain per capita income of a country by calculating: [CBSE (CCE) 2010]
(a) the total income of a person
(b) by dividing the national income by the total population of a country
(c) the total value of all goods and services
(d) the total exports of the country
4. Kerala has low infant Mortality Rate because: [CBSE (CCE) 2010]
(a) it has good climatic condition
(b) it has adequate infrastructure
(c) it has adequate provision of basic health and educational facilities
(d) it has poor net attendance ratio
5. Which of the following neighbouring countries has better performance in terms of human development than India?
(b) Sri Lanka
6. Assume there are four families in a country. The average per capita income of these families is ₹ 5000. If the income of three families is ₹ 4000, ₹ 7000 and ₹ 3000 respectively, what is the income of the fourth family?
(a) ₹ 7,500
(b) ₹ 3,000
(c) ₹ 2,000
(d) ₹ 6,000
7. According to the World Development Report 2004, low-income countries are those which have per capita income of
(a) $ 900 or less.
(b) $ 1000 or less
(c) $ 825 or less
(d) $ 500 or less
8. Identify which of the following cannot be a development goal for a landless rural labourer?
(a) More days of work
(b) Better wages
(c) Quality education for children
(d) Foreign tours
9. Besides seeking more income, one way or the other, people also seek things like
(a) equal treatment
(d) all of them
10. Different persons could have different as well as conflicting notions of a country’s development. A fair and just path for all should be achieved. Interpret the concept being discussed here.
(a) Social development
(b) Cultural development
(c) National development
(d) Economic development
11. List how many tonnes of liquid toxic wastes a vessel dumped in a city called Abidjan in Ivory Coast, a country in Africa?
(a) 500 tonnes
(b) 600 tonnes
(c) 900 tonnes
(d) 1000 tonnes
12. Countries with higher income are ………….. than others with less income.
(a) Less developed
(b) More developed
(c) Less stronger
(d) More organised
13. Income of the country divided by its total population is known as
(a) Capital Income
(b) National Income
(c) Per capita income
14. In the World Development Report 2006, Rich Countries were those which in 2004 had the per capita income of
(a) ₹ 2,53,000 per annum & above
(b) ₹ 14,50,000 per annum & above
(c) ₹ 4,53,000 per annum & above
(d) ₹ 13,53,000 per annum & above
15. In the World Development Report 2006, low-income countries were those which in 2004 had the per capita income of
(a) ₹ 37,000 or less
(b) ₹ 47,000 or less
(c) ₹ 50,000 or less
(d) ₹ 39,000 or less
16. In 2004, India came in the category of
(a) Rich countries
(b) Low-income countries
(c) Developed countries
(d) Medium income countries
17. Comparing all states, identify the state which had the highest per capita income in 2002 – 2003.
18. Which state had the least per capita income in 2002-03?
19. Number of children that die before the age of one year as a proportion of 1000 live children born in that particular year is known as
(a) Death rate
(b) Survival rate
(c) Infant mortality rate
(d) Life death rate
20. Proportion of literate population in the 7 and above age group is called as
(a) Knowledge rate
(b) Literacy rate
(c) Attendance rate
(d) Excellence Rate
21. Which age group of children is included for calculating Net Attendance Ratio?
(a) 6 – 10
(b) 7 – 11
(c) 5 – 9
(d) 10 – 15
22. In 2003, Infant Mortality Rate in Kerala was
23. For the year 1995 – 96, the Net Attendance Ratio for class I to V in Bihar was
24. Literacy rate for the rural male population of Uttar Pradesh is
(a) 62 %
(b) 59 %
(c) 52 %
(d) 42 %
25. For calculating Body Mass Index (BMI), the weight of the person is divided by the
(a) Square of the weight
(b) Square of the height
(c) Square root of the height
(d) Square of the sum of height and weight
26. If BMI is less than 18.5 then the person would be considered
(b) long height
(c) under nourished
(d) short height
27. Report published by UNDP which compares countries based on the educational levels of the people, their health status and per capita income is
(a) Human Education Report
(b) Human Development Report
(c) Human Population Report
(d) Human Quality Report
28. HDI Rank of India in the world out of 177 countries in 2004 was
29. India’s per capita income in US $ is …………… Sri Lanka (in 2004)
(a) less than
(b) more than
(c) equal to
(d) less than or equal to
30. Nepal has nearly ……………. the per capita income of India (in 2004)
(a) one – fourth
(b) three – fourth
31. What proportion of the country is overusing their groundwater reserves?
(a) One – Fourth
(c) One – Third
32. Resources which will get exhausted after years of use is called ……………
(a) Renewable resources
(b) Non – durable resources
(c) Non – renewable resources
(d) Competing resources