Point out one feature in the practice of federalism in India that is similar to and one feature that is different from that of Belgium.
- Similar feature : Like Belgium, in India also the constitutional powers are given to the regional and local governments.
- Different feature : Unlike Belgium, in India regional and local governments are dependent on the central government for matters of national importance.
What is the main difference between a federal form of government and a unitary one? Explain with an example.
Unitary farm of government
- There is only one level of government or subunits are subordinate to the central government.
- The central government can pass on orders to the provincial or the local government.
- The central ‘ government is all in all.
- There is no sharing of power leading to conflicts and undermining of unity, etc.
Federal form of government
- There are generally two levels of government.
- The central government cannot order to local government.
- The state government has powers of its own for which it is not answerable to the central government.
- There is a balance of power between the central and the state governments that helps in unity of the country.
State any two differences between the local government before and after the constitutional amendment in 1992. 
Local government before 1992
- It was under the control of state government.
- Elections were not held regularly.
Local government after 1992
- It has got some powers of their own.
- Elections are held regularly
Fill in the blanks :
Since the United States is a ________ type of federation, all the constituent states have equal powers and states are ________ vis-a-vis the federal government. But India is a ________ type of federation and some states have more power than others. In India the ________ government has more powers.
coming together, strong, holding together, central
Here are three reactions to the language policy followed in India. Give an argument and an example to support any of these positions.
- Sangeeta : The policy of accommodation have strengthened national unity.
- Arman : Language based states has divided us by making everyone conscious of their language.
- Harish : This policy has only helped to consolidate the dominance of English over all other languages.
Sangeeta’s reaction to the language policy has provided many safeguards to protect other languages. Besides Hindi, 21 other languages are included in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution.
The Government work is allowed to carry out in any of the official languages of the concerned state. This shows that language policy has helped in strengthening national unity.
The distinguishing feature of a federal government is :
(a) National government gives some powers to the provincial government.
(b) Power is distributed among the legislature, executive and judiciary.
(c) Elected officials exercise supreme power in the government.
(d) Governmental power is divided between different levels of government.
A few subjects in various Lists of the Indian Constitution are given here. Group them under the Union, State and Concurrent Lists as provided in the table below.
Examine the following pairs that give the level of government in India and the powers of the government at that level to make laws on the subjects mentioned against each. Which of the following pairs is not correctly matched?
(a) State government – State List
(b) Central government – Union List
(c) Central and State governments – Concurrent List
(d) Local government – Residuary powers
Match list I with list II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:
- Union of India
- Municipal Corporation
- Gram Panchayat
A. Prime Minister
Consider the following four statements.
A. In a federation the powers of the federal and provincial governments are clearly demarcated.
B. India is a federation because the powers of the Union and State Governments are specified in the Constitution and they have exclusive jurisdiction on their respective subjects.
C. Sri Lanka is a federation because the country is divided into provinces.
D. India is no longer a federation because some powers of the states have been devolved to the local government bodies.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) A, B and C
(b) A, C and D
(c) A and B only
(d) B and C only