Biological classification Sample paper

Q1. Bacteria that live in hot springs are called

  • 1) Halophiles
  • 2) Thermoacidophiles
  • 3) Thermohalophiles
  • 4) Methanogens


Thermoacidophiles are bacteria which can thrive at very high temperatures and in extreme acidic environments.

Q2. Viruses are non-cellular organisms but replicate themselves when they infect the host cell. To which of the following kingdoms do viruses belong?

  • 1) Protista
  • 2) None of these
  • 3) Monera
  • 4) Fungi


Viruses do not belong to any kingdom in biological classification. Viruses are inert when outside the living cell. They are active and can replicate only when they infect the host cell.

Q3. In plants, mosaic formation, leaf rolling and curling, yellowing of plant parts, vein clearing, dwarfing and stunted growth are symptoms of 

  • 1) Bacterial diseases
  • 2) Fungal diseases
  • 3) Viral diseases
  • 4) Mycoplasmal diseases


Plant virus such as cauliflower mosaic virus causes plant diseases. The symptoms include mosaic formation, leaf rolling and curling, yellowing of plant parts, vein clearing, dwarfing and stunted growth. 

Q4. Who proposed Contagium vivum fluidum?

  • 1) Virchow
  • 2) M. W. Beijerinck
  • 3) D. J. Ivanowsky
  • 4) A. Roxberg


M. W. Beijerinck demonstrated that the extract of infected tobacco plant can infect the healthy plant. He named this extract as Contagium vivum fluidum.

Q5. Rhizopus belongs to

  • 1) Zygomycetes
  • 2) Basidiomycetes
  • 3) Deuteromycetes
  • 4) Ascomycetes


Rhizopus belongs to zygomycetes of kingdom Fungi. Fungi which belong to the group zygomycetes show the presence of septate mycelium, sporangia at the tips of hyphae, sexual reproduction by conjugation and absence of non-motile zoospores.

Q6. Why are deuteromycetes called imperfect fungi?


Only asexual and vegetative phases of deuteromycetes are known; hence, they are called imperfect fungi.  

Q7. Explain the groups of protozoa.


There are four groups of protozoa:

  • 1. Amoeboid Protozoans: Amoeboid protozoans live in fresh or sea water or in moist soil. They have pseudopodia to capture their prey. The body surface of marine amoeboid protozoans is covered with silica shells. Examples: Amoeba, Entamoeba
  • 2. Flagellated Protozoans: Flagellated protozoans are either free-living or parasitic. Parasitic forms cause certain diseases such as sleeping sickness. These protozoans have flagella for locomotion.
  • 3. Ciliated Protozoans: These protozoans have numerous cilia on their body. Because of the cilia, they are actively moving organisms. Cilia help in locomotion and allow food laden water to enter the organism’s body. These organisms are aquatic. Examples: Paramecium
  • 4. Sporozoans: These protozoans have an infectious spore stage in their life cycle. They are parasites. Example: Plasmodium (which causes malaria)

Q8. Name the protein-rich layer in Euglena which replaces the cell wall.



Q9. Which one does not possess nucleic acid? 

  • 1) Mycoplasma
  • 2) Prion
  • 3) Virus
  • 4) Viroid


Prions are abnormally folded proteins which are made of amino acids.   Nucleic acids are used in the reproduction of DNA and play a role in protein synthesis, but they are not directly embedded into the protein.   Therefore, prions do not contain any nucleic acid (or genetic information) within them. 

Q10. The accumulated food reserve in fungi is

  • 1) Starch
  • 2) Fat
  • 3) Protein
  • 4) Glycogen


Fungi are saprophytes, i.e. they absorb soluble organic substances from dead and decaying matter. In fungi, the food is stored in the form of glycogen and oil droplets.

Q11. Cauliflower mosaic virus contains 

  • 1) dsRNA
  • 2) ssDNA
  • 3) dsDNA
  • 4) ssRNA


Cauliflower mosaic virus (CMV) also called caulimovirus contains double-stranded (ds) DNA. 

Q12. Write a short note on Cyanobacteria.


Cyanobacteria:  They are also called blue-green algae. They are unicellular, colonial or filamentous. They are found in fresh or marine water. Some of them are also terrestrial. They show the presence of rigid cell walls. In motile cyanobacteria, flagellum is present. Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs and show the presence of chlorophyll a. Cyanobacteria can fix atmospheric nitrogen in specialised cells called heterocysts. Anabaena and Nostoc are examples of cyanobacteria.

Q13. What are lichens?


Lichens are a mutually useful symbiotic association between algae and fungi.

Q14. Thread-like filaments which constitute the body of fungi are

  • 1) Hyphae
  • 2) Paraphyses
  • 3) Haptera
  • 4) Rhizoids


Hyphae are long, thread-like and filamentous. The network of hyphae is known as mycelium.

Q15. Difference between virus and viroid is

  • 1) Low molecular weight RNA present in virus but absent in viroid
  • 2) Protein coat absent in viroid but present in virus
  • 3) Both a and b
  • 4) None of the above


In viruses, the genetic material can be RNA or DNA which is enclosed by the capsid. In viroids, the genetic material is RNA which is free and not enclosed by any protein coat.

Q16. An edible fungus is

  • 1) Ustilago
  • 2) Morchella
  • 3) Aspergillus
  • 4) Polyporus


Species of fungi from the genus Morchella are edible. They belong to the group ascomycetes. Their ascocarps are cap-like, fleshy, sponge-like and edible. They are considered a table delicacy in India and are grown in Kashmir and Punjab. Examples: Morchella esculenta, Morchella deliciosa, Morchella crassipes

Q17. Mycobiont and phycobiont are found in

  • 1) BGA
  • 2) Root
  • 3) Lichens
  • 4) Mycorrhiza


Lichens are a symbiotic association between fungi and algae. The fungal component is heterotrophic and known as mycobiont, while the algal component is autotrophic and known as phycobiont.  

Q18. What are the criteria used to classify fungi in different classes?


Criteria used to classify fungi in different classes:  1. Morphology of the mycelium  2. Mode of spore formation and fruiting bodies

Q19. Virus envelop is known as

  • 1) Nucleoprotein
  • 2) Core
  • 3) Capsid
  • 4) Virion


Virus envelop is made of protein and is called a capsid. It is made of subunits called capsomeres.

Q20. When fungi feed on dead organic matter, they are known as

  • 1) None of these
  • 2) Saprophytes
  • 3) Dimorphic
  • 4) Parasites


Fungi are saprophytes. They absorb organic constituents as their food from dead and decaying matter.

Q21. Name any one disease caused by viroids.


Potato spindle tuber disease is caused by viroids.

Q22. To which kingdom do bacteria belong?


Bacteria belong to kingdom Monera.

Q23. Single-celled eukaryotes are included in

  • 1) Monera
  • 2) Fungi
  • 3) Protista
  • 4) Archaea


Unicellular eukaryotes (except some unicellular algae and fungi) are grouped under kingdom Protista. Protists are considered as the phylogenetic link between kingdom Monera and multicellular eukaryotic organisms.

Q24. Lichens are described as indicators of

  • 1) Agricultural productivity
  • 2) Water pollution
  • 3) Air pollution
  • 4) Soil pollution


Lichens do not grow in polluted air. Hence, the regions where there is minimal growth of lichens despite the suitable condition for their growth may indicate increased pollution in that region.

Q25. Virus was placed in

  • 1) Protista
  • 2) None of these
  • 3) Fungi
  • 4) Monera


Viruses do not belong to any kingdom in biological classification. Viruses are inert when outside the living cell. They are active and can replicate only when they infect the host cell.

Q26. Name a unicellular fungus.



Q27. Fungi are always

  • 1) Heterotrophs
  • 2) Saprotrophs
  • 3) Autotrophs
  • 4) Parasites


Fungi are heterotrophs. They can be saprophytic, parasitic or symbiotic.

Q28. Study of fungi is

  • 1) Mycology
  • 2) Phycology
  • 3) Microbiology
  • 4) Palynology


Mycology is the branch of biology which deals with the study of fungi, including their properties, taxonomy and whether they are useful or harmful.

Q29. What is Plasmodium?


Plasmodium is the aggregation of slime moulds which grow and spread on a large area over several feet under suitable conditions.

Q30. Write any two features of viroids.


Features of viroids: A viroid is a free RNA of low molecular weight. It lacks a protein coat which is found in viruses.

Q31. The shape of the cocci bacteria is

  • 1) Rod-shaped
  • 2) Spiral
  • 3) Comma-shaped
  • 4) Spherical


Bacteria are found in four shapes—cocci (spherical, ovoid shape), bacilli (rod-shaped), spirilla (spiral shaped/coiled) and vibrio (comma-shaped).

Q32. A virus is considered a living organism and an obligate parasite when inside a host cell. However, a virus is not classified along with bacteria or fungi. What are the characters of a virus which are similar to non-living objects?


The characters showing that viruses are non-living: They do not show cellular metabolism and lack respiration. They have no proper cellular structure. They are active only when they are inside the living host cells.

Q33. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) genes are 

  • 1) Proteinaceous
  • 2) Polyribonucleotides
  • 3) Single-stranded RNA
  • 4) Double-stranded RNA


Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is an elongated and rod-like plant virus with 95% protein and 5% RNA. The genetic material of TMV is linear, single-stranded and 6500 nucleotides in length. 

Q34. Match the following and choose the correct combination from the options given Column I (Group Protista) Column II (Example) (a)Chrysophytes (i)Paramecium (b)Dinoflagellates (ii)Euglena (c)Euglenoids (iii)Gonyaulax (d)Protozoans (iv)Diatoms

  • 1) (a)- (iv), (b) – (iii), (c) – (ii), (d) – (i)
  • 2) (a)- (iii), (b) – (iv), (c) – (i), (d) – (ii)
  • 3) (a)- (iv), (b) – (ii), (c) – (iii), (d) – (i)
  • 4) (a)- (i), (b) – (iii), (c) – (ii), (d) – (iv)
  • 5) (a)- (i), (b) – (iv), (c) – (iii), (d) – (ii)


Column I (Group Protista) Column II (Example – Answers) (a)Chrysophytes (i) Diatoms (b)Dinoflagellates (ii) Gonyaulax (c)Euglenoids (iii) Euglena (d)Protozoans (iv) Paramecium

Q35. The beautiful diatoms and desmids are placed under

  • 1) Chrysophytes
  • 2) Dinoflagellates
  • 3) Slime moulds
  • 4) Euglenoids


Diatoms and desmids are placed under Chrysophytes (Kingdom: Protista).

Q36. Name the group of fungi which are also known as sac fungi.



Q37. Interferons are 

  • 1) Antibacterial proteins
  • 2) Complex proteins
  • 3) Antiviral proteins
  • 4) Anticancer proteins


Interferons are anti-viral, regulatory glycoproteins which are produced in virus-infected cells for defence. They are non-antigenic proteins weighing 2000 Da. They were discovered by Isaacs and Lindenmann in 1957. These interferons induce formation of certain enzymes which suppress viral multiplication in host cells and protect the host from further viral reinfection. 

Q38. Write any two distinguishing characters of dinoflagellates.


1)Dinoflagellates have stiff plates of cellulose on the outer surface. 2)Their rapid multiplication gives a red appearance to the sea which is known as red tides.

Q39. Give any two examples of insectivorous plants.


Bladderwort, Venus fly trap

Q40. Explain the terms mycobiont and phycobiont.


Mycobiont is the fungal component of a lichen which provides shelter and absorbs minerals and water for the algae.  Phycobiont is the algal component of lichen which prepares food for fungi.  

Q41. Mycorrhizae show

  • 1) Commensalism
  • 2) Symbiosis
  • 3) Ammensalism
  • 4) Parasitism


Mycorrhiza is the symbiotic association of fungus with the roots of higher plants. The fungus receives food and shelter from the tree. In return, the fungus absorbs water and minerals from the soil and transports it to the tree, thus helping the tree to grow.

Q42. One of these is not a characteristic feature of cyanobacteria.

  • 1) They can fix atmospheric nitrogen.
  • 2) They are multicellular.
  • 3) They form blooms in polluted water.
  • 4) They form colonies.


Cyanobacteria are unicellular, colonial or filamentous organisms. They are also called blue-green algae.

Q43. Who discovered viroids?


T. O. Diener discovered viroids.

Q44. Lichens are a well-known combination of an alga and a fungus, where the fungus has

  • 1) A parasitic relationship with the alga
  • 2) An epiphytic relationship with the alga
  • 3) A symbiotic relationship with the alga
  • 4) A saprophytic relationship with the alga


Lichens are a permanent symbiotic association between mycobiont, i.e. the fungal component, and phycobiont, i.e. the algal component.

Q45. What is mycorrhiza?


Mycorrhiza is the symbioant association of fungi with the roots of higher plants.

Q46. The influenza virus has 

  • 1) Both RNA and DNA
  • 2) RNA
  • 3) DNA
  • 4) Only proteins and no nucleic acids


Influenza virus is single stranded RNA virus, which cannot serve directly as mRNA but rather as templates for mRNA synthesis via viral transcriptase. 

Q47. Write about the contributions of the following scientists: M. W. Beijerinck W. M. Stanley


M. W. Beijerinck: He demonstrated that the extract of an infected tobacco plant causes infection in a healthy plant. He called this fluid as contagium vivum fluidum. W. M. Stanley: He showed that viruses could be crystallised and the crystals are largely made of proteins.

Q48. Desmids are also called

  • 1) Golden algae
  • 2) Slime moulds
  • 3) Blue-green algae
  • 4) Mycoplasma


Pigment fucoxanthin present in desmids imparts a golden-brown colour. Hence, they are also called golden algae.

Q49. Nuclear membrane is absent in

  • 1) Plantae
  • 2) Fungi
  • 3) Monera
  • 4) Protista


Monerans are prokaryotic organisms. Prokaryotic cells do not have membrane-bound organelles and a distinct nucleus bound by the nuclear membrane.

Q50. Heterotrophic fungi can live as

  • 1) Parasites
  • 2) Symbionts
  • 3) Saprophytes
  • 4) All of these


Saprotrophic fungi absorb organic matter from dead and decaying plants or animals. Some fungi such as rusts and smuts grow as parasites on certain crops such as wheat and corn by decomposing their cellulose. In lichens, the mycobiont part, i.e. fungi are in symbiotic association with the phycobiont part, i.e. algae.

Q51. Which of the following is not the locomotory organ of protozoa?

  • 1) Cilia
  • 2) Parapodia
  • 3) Pseudopodia
  • 4) Flagella


In protozoans, locomotion occurs either by pseudopodia, cilia or flagella. Example: Amoeba has pseudopodia, paramoecium locomotes by cilia and trypanosome has flagella as their locomotory organs.

Q52. Write the name of fungi which is used extensively in genetic work.



Q53. Who proposed the five kingdom classification?

  • 1) Virchow
  • 2) R. H. Whittaker
  • 3) Schwann and Schleiden
  • 4) Carl Linnaeus


R. H. Whittaker, an American ecologist, proposed the five kingdom classification. He divided organisms into five kingdoms—Monera, Protista, Fungi, Animalia and Plantae.

Q54. Red tide is caused by

  • 1) Gonyaulax
  • 2) All of these
  • 3) Gymnodinium
  • 4) Noctiluca


Noctiluca, Gymnodinium and Gonyaulax are dinoflagellates. Due to their rapid multiplication, the sea appears red which is known as red tide.

Q55. Among rust, smut and mushroom, all the three

  • 1) Bear ascocarps.
  • 2) Bear basidiocarps.
  • 3) Are saprobes.
  • 4) Are pathogens.


Rust, smut and mushroom belong to phylum basidiomycetes of kingdom Fungi. Basidiomycetes decompose the woody structure of trees. They decompose cellulose and lignin. Rusts are parasitic on certain species of wheat and coffee. Smuts infect corn, wheat etc., and mushrooms are parasitic on the bark and roots of certain trees.

Q56. Describe the three groups of archaebacteria.


The three groups of archaebacteria are 1. Methanogens: Methanogens grow in marshy areas and in the stomach of ruminants. Methanogens are responsible for the production of biogas from animal dung. 2. Halophiles inhabit extreme salty areas. 3. Thermoacidophiles inhabit areas which are acidic and rich in sulphur with high temperature. They are mostly found in hot springs.

Q57. Define plasmogamy.


Plasmogamy is the fusion of protoplasms of motile or non-motile gametes.

Q58. Conidia and ascospores are produced by ascomycetes, still they are different from each other. Justify.


Conidia are asexual spores. They are produced exogenously on conidiophores. On germination, they produce mycelium. Ascospores are sexual spores. They are produced endogenously in a sac-like structure called ascus.

Q59. What is diatomaceous earth?


The accumulation of large amounts of cell wall deposits left back by diatoms over billions of years is called diatomaceous earth.

Q60. Which of the following are intracellular obligate parasites?

  • 1) Blue-green algae
  • 2) Bacteria
  • 3) Slime moulds
  • 4) Viruses


An obligate parasite cannot complete its life cycle without a suitable host. Viruses infect a cell, take the machinery of the cell and replicate. Hence, they are intracellular obligatory parasites.

Q61. Wheat rust is caused by

  • 1) Puccinia
  • 2) Puffballs
  • 3) Albugo
  • 4) Yeast


Puccinia is the genus of kingdom Fungi. It includes species of obligate parasites which cause serious infection called rust. These fungi cause rusty pustules on the aerial parts of crops. Puccinia graminis tritici – black stem rust of wheat Puccinia glumarum – yellow rust of wheat Puccinia recondita – brown rust of wheat

Q62. Write any two features of spores of slime moulds.


Features of slime moulds: 1)Spores survive for many years under adverse conditions. 2)They possess true cell walls.

Q63. In the anaerobic respiration of yeast and bacteria, which of the following is released?

  • 1) Methanol
  • 2) H2O
  • 3) CO2
  • 4) Butanol


COis released during the anaerobic respiration of yeast and bacteria. During anaerobic respiration, sugars are converted or oxidised into ethanol or lactic acid.

Q64. Sexual reproduction is absent in

  • 1) Ascomycetes
  • 2) Deuteromycetes
  • 3) Basidiomycetes
  • 4) Phycomycetes


Deuteromycetes is a group of fungi. In them, the sexual reproduction is either absent or unknown. As and when the mode of sexual reproduction was known, the fungi were moved to either ascomycetes or basidiomycetes. Deuteromycetes reproduce asexually by producing spores called conidia.

Q65. What are coenocytic hyphae?


Hyphae which are continuous tubes filled with multinucleated cytoplasm are called coenocytic hyphae.

Q66. What are chemosynthetic bacteria? State their importance.


Chemosynthetic bacteria oxidise substances such as ammonia, nitrites and nitrates and use the released energy for the synthesis of ATP. Chemosynthetic bacteria help in recycling nutrients such as phosphorus, nitrogen, sulphur, iron etc.

Q67. Name the bacteria responsible for the formation of bloom in polluted water.


Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae)

Q68. Define hyphae.


Hyphae are long, slender, thread-like bodies of fungi.

Q69. Who coined the term virus?


Louis Pasteur coined the term virus.

Q70. Which of the following is a prokaryote?

  • 1) Chlamydomonas
  • 2) Amoeba
  • 3) Spirogyra
  • 4) Bacteria


Bacteria belong to kingdom Monera, and it is a prokaryote. A prokaryote does not have membrane-bound cell organelles.

Q71. Differentiate between ascomycetes and basidiomycetes.


Ascomycetes Basidiomycetes (i)  Ascomycetes are saprophytic, decomposers, parasitic or coprophilous. (i)    Basidiomycetes are parasites. (ii)   They produce ascospores and conidia. (ii)   They produce basidiospores. (iii)   Ascospores are produced endogenously in asci. (iii)  Basidiospores are produced  exogenously on the basidia. (iv)  Asexual reproduction is by conidia. (iv)   Asexual reproduction is absent.

Q72. Give one example of flagellate protozoan.



Q73. Common bread mould is

  • 1) Myxovirus
  • 2) Yeast
  • 3) Rhizopus
  • 4) Clostridium


Rhizopus is a saprophytic fungus. It spoils food items such as bread, strawberries, apples etc. It is frequently observed growing on bread and is hence also called common bread mould.

Q74. What is mycoplasma?


Mycoplasma is an organism which lacks a cell wall It is included in kingdom Monera. It is anaerobic. It is pathogenic for many plants and animals.

Q75. Explain genetic material in viruses.


Viruses contain either RNA or DNA as genetic material. The genetic material of a virus is infectious. Viruses which infect plants have single-stranded RNA. Viruses which infect animals have either single-stranded or double-stranded RNA or double-stranded DNA. Bacteriophages have double-stranded DNA.

Q76. State the four categories of bacteria based on their shape.


The four categories of bacteria based on their shape are cocci, rod-shaped bacilli, comma-shaped vibrio and spiral shaped spirilla.

Q77. Write the names of the five kingdoms proposed by Whittaker.


The five kingdoms proposed by Whittaker are Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia.

Q78. Explain the steps of the sexual cycle of fungi.


The sexual cycle of fungi occurs in three steps: 1.Plasmogamy: Protoplasms of two motile or non-motile gametes fuse. 2.Karyogamy: Fusion of nuclei of two gametes. 3.The zygote undergoes meiosis resulting in the formation of haploid spores.

Q79. Explain the alternation of generation in plants.


Alternation of generation is observed in plants. Plants show two phases in their life cycle—the diploid sporophyte phase and the haploid gametophyte phase—which alternate with each other.

Q80. Name the organisms which were placed under kingdom Plantae before the five kingdom classification. Why?


Bacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, mosses, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms were placed in kingdom Plantae because these organisms possess a cell wall.

Q81. Describe the formation of haploid spores in fungi.


In sexually reproducing fungi, hyphae of two compatible mating types fuse. In some fungi, the fusion of haploid cells immediately forms diploid cells (2n), but in some ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, the fusion results in an n+n stage, i.e. single cell with two nuclei. Such a condition of cell is called the dikaryon condition and the stage is known as dikaryophase. The polar nuclei of the cells then fuse, and the cell becomes diploid. Reduction division occurs inside the fruiting bodies resulting in the formation of fungi.

Q82. What criteria were used by R. H. Whittaker for the five kingdom classification?


The criteria used by R. H. Whittaker for the five kingdom classification were cell structure, thallus organisation, mode of nutrition, reproduction and phylogenetic relationships.

Q83. Give two examples of cyanobacteria.


Nostoc Anabaena

Q84. How is a viroid different from a virus?


A viroid lacks the protein coat which is present in a virus.

Q85. Give any two examples of fungi which belong to group ascomycetes.


Aspergillus, Claviceps